4810-20 Continuous Epidural 18g Hustead Recall
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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Inadvertently induced high arterial blood pressure may result in angina pectoris, aortic rupture or cerebral hemorrhage. Epinephrine may induce potentially serious cardiac arrhythmias in patients not suffering from heart disease and in patients with organic heart disease or who are receiving drugs that sensitize the myocardium. Parenterally administered epinephrine initially may produce constriction of renal blood vessels and decrease urine formation. Epinephrine Injection, USP is subject to oxidation and should be protected against exposure to light and stored in light-resistant containers. Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for serious allergic or other emergency situations even though this product contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may in other products cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms or life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible persons. The alternatives to using epinephrine in a life-threatening situation may not be satisfactory. The presence of a sulfite in this product should not deter administration of the drug for treatment of serious allergic or other emergency situations.
Sodium Chloride must be used with caution in the presence of congestive heart failure, circulatory insufficiency, kidney dysfunction or hypoproteinemia.
Excessive amounts of sodium chloride by any route may cause hypokalemia and acidosis. Excessive amounts by parental routes may precipitate congestive heart failure and acute pulmonary edema, especially seen in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease and those receiving corticos-teroids, corticotrophin or other drugs that may give rise to sodium retention. For use in newborns, when a Sodium Chloride solution is required for preparation or diluting medications, or in flushing intravenous catheters, only preservative-free Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 0.9% should be used.
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND EPINEPHRINE INJECTION, USP FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS). DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.
Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.
To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.
Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (e.g., methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.
There is currently no legal information available for this drug.
FDA Safety Alerts
There are currently no FDA safety alerts available for this drug.
There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.
Indications and Usage
Epinephrine is used to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs and other allergens, and to prolong the action of anesthetics. Its cardiac effects may be of use in restoring cardiac rhythm in cardiac arrest due to various causes, but it is not used in cardiac failure or in hemorrhagic, traumatic, or cardiogenic shock. Epinephrine is used as a hemostatic agent. It is also used in treating mucosal congestion of hay fever, rhinitis, and acute sinusitis; to relieve bronchial asthmatic paroxysms; in syncope due to complete heart block or carotid sinus hypersensitivity; for symptomatic relief of serum sickness, urticaria, angioneurotic edema; for resuscitation in cardiac arrest following anesthetic accidents; in simple (open angle) glaucoma; for relaxation of uterine musculature and to inhibit uterine contractions. Epinephrine Injection can be utilized to prolong the action of anesthetics used in local and regional anesthesia.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Sodium Chloride Injection is used to flush intravascular catheters or as a sterile, isontonic single dose vehicle, solvent, or diluent for substances to administered intravenously, intramuscularly or sub-cutaneously and for other extemporaneously prepared single dose sterile solutions according to instructions of the manufacture of the drug to be administered.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection, by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
EPINEPHRINE injection, USP
1:1000 (1 mg/mL)
Protect from light until ready to use.
Epinephrine Injection, USP 1:1000 is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution. Each mL contains epinephrine 1 mg; sodium chloride 9 mg; sodium metabisulfite 0.9 mg added. May contain
hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment. The solution contains no bacteriostat or antimicrobial agent. It is administered by the following routes: intravenous, intracardiac (left ventricular chamber), via endotracheal tube into the bronchial tree, subcutaneous or intramuscular. Epinephrine, USP is a sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agent designated chemically as 4-[1-hydroxy-2 (methylamino) ethyl]-1,2 benzenediol, a white, microcrystalline powder. It has the following structural formula:
Sodium Chloride, USP is chemically designated NaCl, a white, crystalline compound freely soluble in water.
Spectra Medical Devices, Inc.
INJECTION, USP, 0.9%
Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution of sodium chloride 0.9% (9 mg/mL) in Water for Injection containing no antimicrobial agent or other added substance. The pH is between 4.5 and 7.0. Its chloride and sodium ion concentrates are approximately 0.154 mEq of each per milliliter and its calculated osmolality is 0.308 milliosmols per mL.
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND EPINEPHRINE (lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrous and epinephrine) injection, solution
For Infiltration and Nerve Block.
Multiple-dose Fliptop Vial
Protect from light.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine in water for injection for parenteral administration in various concentrations with characteristics as follows:
Sodium metabisulfite 0.5 mg/mL and citric acid, anhydrous 0.2 mg/mL added as stabilizers. The headspace of Lists 1209, and 3179 are carbon dioxide gassed and Lists 3177, 3178, 3181, 3182 and 3183 are nitrogen gassed. May contain sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid to adjust pH; pH is 4.5 (3.3 to 5.5). See HOW SUPPLIED section for various sizes and strengths.
Multiple-dose vials contain methylparaben 1 mg/mL added as preservative.
Single-dose ampuls and vials contain no bacteriostat or antimicrobial agent. Discard unused portion.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride, USP is chemically designated 2-(diethyl-amino)-2’,6’-acetoxylidide monohydrochloride monohydrate, a white powder freely soluble in water. It has the following structural formula:
Epinephrine, USP is a sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agent designated chemically as 4-[1-hydroxy-2 (methylamino) ethyl]-1,2 benzenediol, a white, microcrystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: