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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
BEFORE THERAPY WITH 'MEFOXIN' IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFOXITIN, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. THIS PRODUCT SHOULD BE GIVEN WITH CAUTION TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS. ANTIBIOTICS SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED WITH CAUTION TO ANY PATIENT WHO HAS DEMONSTRATED SOME FORM OF ALLERGY, PARTICULARLY TO DRUGS. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO 'MEFOXIN' OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with the use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including MEFOXIN, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD.
Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
There is currently no legal information available for this drug.
FDA Safety Alerts
There are currently no FDA safety alerts available for this drug.
There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.
MEFOXIN, supplied as a premixed solution in plastic containers, is intended for intravenous use only.
MEFOXIN is indicated for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the diseases listed below.
- (1) Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia and lung abscess, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (excluding enterococci, e.g., Enterococcus faecalis [formerly Streptococcus faecalis]), Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacteroides species.
- (2) Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia species (including P. rettgeri).
- (3) Intra-abdominal infections, including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess, caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species including Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium species.
- (4) Gynecological infections, including endometritis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase-producing strains), Bacteroides species including B. fragilis, Clostridium species, Peptococcus niger, Peptostreptococcus species, and Streptococcus agalactiae. MEFOXIN, like cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when MEFOXIN is used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and C. trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate anti-chlamydial coverage should be added.
- (5) Septicemia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Bacteroides species including B. fragilis.
- (6) Bone and joint infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains).
- (7) Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and other streptococci (excluding enterococci e.g., Enterococcus faecalis [formerly Streptococcus faecalis]), Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species including B. fragilis, Clostridium species, Peptococcus niger, and Peptostreptococcus species.
Appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed to determine the susceptibility of the causative organisms to MEFOXIN. Therapy may be started while awaiting the results of these studies.
In randomized comparative studies, cefoxitin and cephalothin were comparably safe and effective in the management of infections caused by gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods susceptible to the cephalosporins. MEFOXIN has a high degree of stability in the presence of bacterial beta-lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases.
Many infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative bacteria resistant to some cephalosporins respond to MEFOXIN. Similarly, many infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria resistant to some penicillin antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, penicillin G) respond to treatment with MEFOXIN. Many infections caused by mixtures of susceptible aerobic and anaerobic bacteria respond to treatment with MEFOXIN.
MEFOXIN is indicated for the prophylaxis of infection in patients undergoing uncontaminated gastrointestinal surgery, vaginal hysterectomy, abdominal hysterectomy, or cesarean section.
If there are signs of infection, specimens for culture should be obtained for identification of the causative organism so that appropriate treatment may be instituted.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of MEFOXIN and other antibacterial drugs, MEFOXIN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Cefoxitin sodium is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum cepha antibiotic for intravenous administration. It is derived from cephamycin C, which is produced by Streptomyces lactamdurans. Its chemical name is sodium (6R,7S)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxy-8-oxo-7-[2-(2-thienyl)acetamido]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate carbamate (ester). The empirical formula is C16H16N3NaO7S2, and the molecular weight is 449.44. The structural formula is:
Cefoxitin sodium contains approximately 53.8 mg (2.3 milliequivalents) of sodium per gram of cefoxitin activity.
Premixed Intravenous Solution MEFOXIN (Cefoxitin Injection) is supplied as a sterile, nonpyrogenic, frozen iso-osmotic solution of cefoxitin sodium. Each 50 mL contains Cefoxitin Sodium, USP equivalent to either 1 gram or 2 grams cefoxitin. Dextrose Hydrous, USP has been added to the above dosages to adjust osmolality (approximately 2 grams and 1.1 grams to 1 gram and 2 gram dosages, respectively). The pH is adjusted with sodium bicarbonate and may have been adjusted with hydrochloric acid. The pH is approximately 6.5. After thawing, the solution is intended for intravenous use only. Solutions of MEFOXIN range from colorless to light amber.
The plastic container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic (PL 2040). Solutions are in contact with the polyethylene layer of this container and can leach out certain chemical components of the plastic in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability and safety of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to the USP biological tests for plastic containers, as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.