General Injectables & Vaccine, Inc
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General Injectables & Vaccine, Inc Drugs
Adults:Single Direct Intravenous Injection (bolus): ONLY THE 5 mL, 50 MG or 100 MG DOSAGE SIZES should be used for direct intravenous injection. The usual dose is 50 to 100 mg of lidocaine hydrochloride (0.70 to 1.4 mg/kg; 0.32 to 0.63 mg/lb) administered intravenously under ECG monitoring. This dose may be administered at the rate of approximately 25 to 50 mg/min (0.35 to 0.70 mg/ kg/min; 0.16 to 0.32 mg/lb/min). Sufficient time should be allowed to enable a slow circulation to carry the drug to the site of action. If the initial injection of 50 to 100 mg does not produce a desired response, a second dose may be injected after five minutes. NO MORE THAN 200 TO 300 MG OF LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED DURING A ONE HOUR PERIOD.Continuous Intravenous Infusion: Following bolus administration, intravenous infusions of lidocaine hydrochloride may be initiated at the rate of 1 to 4 mg/min of lidocaine hydrochloride (0.014 to 0.057 mg/kg/min; 0.006 to 0.026 mg/lb/min). The rate of intravenous infusions should be reassessed as soon as the patient’s basic cardiac rhythm appears to be stable or at the earliest signs of toxicity. It should rarely be necessary to continue intravenous infusions of lidocaine for prolonged periods. Solutions for intravenous infusion may be prepared by the addition of one gram (or two grams) of lidocaine hydrochloride to one liter of 5% dextrose in water using aseptic technique. Approximately a 0.1% (or 0.2%) solution will result from this procedure; that is, each milliliter will contain approximately 1 mg (or 2 mg) of lidocaine hydrochloride. In those cases in which fluid restriction is medically appropriate, a more concentrated solution may be prepared. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP has been found to be chemically stable for 24 hours after dilution in 5% dextrose in water. However, as with all intravenous admixtures, dilution of the solution should be made just prior to its administration. When administering lidocaine hydrochloride (or any potent medication) by continuous intravenous infusion, it is advisable to use aprecision volume control I.V. set.Pediatric: Controlled clinical studies in the pediatric population to establish dosing schedules have not been conducted. The American Heart Association’s Standards and Guidelines recommends a bolus dose of 1 mg/kg, and an infusion rate of between 20-50 mg/kg/ min for prolonged therapy. When drug clearance is reduced, as in patients with shock, congestive heart failure or cardiac arrest, the infusion rate should not exceed 20 mg/kg/min.NOTE: Regarding Prolonged Infusions: There are data that indicate the half-life may be 3 hours or longer following infusions of greater than 24 hours in duration. Do not use if solution is discolored or cloudy. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. To prevent needle-stick injuries, needles should not be recapped, purposely bent or broken by hand.
The volume of the preparation to be used for diluting or dissolving any drug for injection is dependent on the vehicle concentration, dose and route of administration as recommended by the manufacturer. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. See PRECAUTIONS.
Whenever possible, phytonadione should be given by the subcutaneous or intramuscular route. When intravenous administration is considered unavoidable, the drug should be injected very slowly, not exceeding 1 mg per minute. Protect from light at all times. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Directions for Dilution Phytonadione may be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose Injection, or 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection. Benzyl alcohol as a preservative has been associated with toxicity in newborns. Therefore, all of the above diluents should be preservative-free. Other diluents should not be used. When dilutions are indicated, administration should be started immediately after mixture with the diluent, and unused portions of the dilution should be discarded, as well as unused contents of the vial.
Prophylaxis of Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that vitamin K1 be given to the newborn. A single intramuscular dose of phytonadione 0.5 to 1 mg within one hour of birth is recommended.
Treatment of Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn Empiric administration of vitamin K1 should not replace proper laboratory evaluation of the coagulation mechanism. A prompt response (shortening of the prothrombin time in 2 to 4 hours) following administration of vitamin K1 is usually diagnostic of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, and failure to respond indicates another diagnosis or coagulation disorder. Phytonadione 1 mg should be given either subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Higher doses may be necessary if the mother has been receiving oral anticoagulants. Whole blood or component therapy may be indicated if bleeding is excessive. This therapy, however, does not correct the underlying disorder and phytonadione should be given concurrently.
Anticoagulant-Induced Prothrombin Deficiency in Adults To correct excessively prolonged prothrombin time caused by oral anticoagulant therapy — 2.5 to 10 mg or up to 25 mg initially is recommended. In rare instances 50 mg may be required. Frequency and amount of subsequent doses should be determined by prothrombin time response or clinical condition (see WARNINGS). If in 6 to 8 hours after parenteral administration the prothrombin time has not been shortened satisfactorily, the dose should be repeated. In the event of shock or excessive blood loss, the use of whole blood or component therapy is indicated.
Hypoprothrombinemia Due to Other Causes in Adults A dosage of 2.5 to 25 mg or more (rarely up to 50 mg) is recommended, the amount and route of administration depending upon the severity of the condition and response obtained. If possible, discontinuation or reduction of the dosage of drugs interfering with coagulation mechanisms (such as salicylates, antibiotics) is suggested as an alternative to administering concurrent phytonadione. The severity of the coagulation disorder should determine whether the immediate administration of phytonadione is required in addition to discontinuation or reduction of interfering drugs.Phytonadione Summary of Dosage Guidelines (See insert text for details)Newborns Dosage Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn Prophylaxis 0.5 - 1 mg IM within 1 hour of birth Treatment 1 mg SC or IM(Higher doses may be necessary if the motherhas been receiving oral anti-goagulants) Adults Initial Dosage Anticoagulant-induced ProthrombinDeficiency(caused by coumarin or indanedione derivatives) 2.5 mg - 10 mg or up to 25 mg(rarely 50 mg) Hypoprothrombinemia due to other causes(Antibiotics; Salicylates or other drugs; Factors limitingabsorption or synthesis) 2.5 mg - 25 mg or more(rarely up to 50 mg)
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