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Generamedix Inc. Drugs
Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection is administered to patients by intravenous infusion. Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection is given in repeated 3- to 4-week cycles. The total dose of Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection may be given on Day 1 of each cycle or divided equally and given on Days 1 and 8 of each cycle. The recommended dosages of Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection are as follows:
The recommended starting dose of Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection is 100 to 120 mg/m2. The following regimens were used in the trials supporting use of Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection as a component of adjuvant therapy in patients with axillary-node positive breast cancer:
Cyclophosphamide 75 mg/m2 PO D 1 to 14
Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection 60 mg/m2 IV D 1, 8
5-Fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 IV D 1, 8
Repeated every 28 days for 6 cycles
5-Fluorouracil 500 mg/m2
Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection 100 mg/m2
Cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2
All drugs administered intravenously on Day 1 and repeated every 21 days for 6 cycles
Patients administered the 120-mg/m2 regimen of Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection also received prophylactic antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (e.g., Septra® Bactrim™) or a fluoroquinolone.
* Spectra® is a registered trademark of Monarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
* Bactrim™ is a trademark of AR Scientific.
Bone Marrow Dysfunction
Consideration should be given to administration of lower starting doses (75 to 90 mg/m2) for heavily pretreated patients, patients with pre-existing bone marrow depression, or in the presence of neoplastic bone marrow infiltration (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
Definitive recommendations regarding use of Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection in patients with hepatic dysfunction are not available because patients with hepatic abnormalities were excluded from participation in adjuvant trials of FEC-100/CEF-120 therapy. In patients with elevated serum AST or serum total bilirubin concentrations, the following dose reductions were recommended in clinical trials, although few patients experienced hepatic impairment:
Bilirubin 1.2 to 3 mg/dL or AST 2 to 4 times upper limit of normal 1/2 of recommended starting dose
Bilirubin > 3 mg/dL or AST > 4 times upper limit of normal 1/4 of recommended starting dose
Information regarding experience in patients with hepatic dysfunction is provided in CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics In Special Populations.
While no specific dose recommendation can be made based on the limited available data in patients with renal impairment, lower doses should be considered in patients with severe renal impairment (serum creatinine > 5 mg/dL).
Dosage adjustments after the first treatment cycle should be made based on hematologic and nonhematologic toxicities. Patients experiencing during treatment cycle nadir platelet counts <50,000/mm3, absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) <250/mm3, neutropenic fever, or Grades 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity should have the Day 1 dose in subsequent cycles reduced to 75% of the Day 1 dose given in the current cycle. Day 1 chemotherapy in subsequent courses of treatment should be delayed until platelet counts are ≥ 100,000/mm3, ANC ≥ 1500/mm3, and nonhematologic toxicities have recovered to ≤ Grade 1. For patients receiving a divided dose of Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection(Day 1 and Day 8), the Day 8 dose should be 75% of Day 1 if platelet counts are 75,000 to 100,000/mm3 and ANC is 1000 to 1499/mm3. If Day 8 platelet counts are <75,000/mm3, ANC <1000/mm3, or Grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity has occurred, the Day 8 dose should be omitted.
Preparation & Administration Precautions
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Procedures normally used for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered for use with Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1 to 8
The following protective measures should be taken when handling Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection:
Personnel should be trained in appropriate techniques for reconstitution and handling.
Pregnant staff should be excluded from working with this drug.
Personnel handling Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection should wear protective clothing: goggles, gowns and disposable gloves and masks.
A designated area should be defined for syringe preparation (preferably under a laminar flow system), with the work surface protected by disposable, plastic-backed, absorbent paper.
All items used for reconstitution, administration or cleaning (including gloves) should be placed in high-risk, waste-disposal bags for high temperature incineration.
Spillage or leakage should be treated with dilute sodium hypochlorite (1% available chlorine) solution, preferably by soaking, and then water. All contaminated and cleaning materials should be placed in high-risk, waste-disposal bags for incineration. Accidental contact with the skin or eyes should be treated immediately by copious lavage with water, or soap and water, or sodium bicarbonate solution. However, do not abrade the skin by using a scrub brush. Medical attention should be sought. Always wash hands after removing gloves.
Prolonged contact with any solution of an alkaline pH should be avoided as it will result in hydrolysis of the drug. Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection should not be mixed with heparin or fluorouracil due to chemical incompatibility that may lead to precipitation.
Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection can be used in combination with other antitumor agents, but it is not recommended that it be mixed with other drugs in the same syringe.
Preparation of Infusion Solution
Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection is provided as a preservative-free, ready-to-use solution.
Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection should be administered into the tubing of a freely flowing intravenous infusion (0.9% sodium chloride or 5% glucose solution). Patients receiving initial therapy at the recommended starting doses of 100 to 120 mg/m2should generally have epirubicin infused over 15 to 20 minutes. For patients who require lower epirubicin starting doses due to organ dysfunction or who require modification of epirubicin doses during therapy, the epirubicin infusion time may be proportionally decreased, but should not be less than 3 minutes. This technique is intended to minimize the risk of thrombosis or perivenous extravasation, which could lead to severe cellulitis, vesication, or tissue necrosis. A direct push injection is not recommended due to the risk of extravasation, which may occur even in the presence of adequate blood return upon needle aspiration. Venous sclerosis may result from injection into small vessels or repeated injections into the same vein (see PRECAUTIONS). Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection should be used within 24 hours of first penetration of the rubber stopper. Discard any unused solution.
Hypercalcemia of Malignancy
Consideration should be given to the severity of as well as the symptoms of hypercalcemia. Vigorous saline hydration alone may be sufficient for treating mild, asymptomatic hypercalcemia. Overhydration should be avoided in patients who have potential for cardiac failure. In hypercalcemia associated with hematologic malignancies, the use of glucocorticoid therapy may be helpful.
The recommended dose of pamidronate disodium in moderate hypercalcemia (corrected serum calcium* of approximately 12 to 13.5 mg/dL) is 60 to 90 mg given as a SINGLE-DOSE, intravenous infusion over 2 to 24 hours. Longer infusions (i.e., >2 hours) may reduce the risk of renal toxicity, particularly in patients with preexisting renal insufficiency.
The recommended dose of pamidronate disodium in severe hypercalcemia (corrected serum calcium * >13.5 mg/dL) is 90 mg given as a SINGLE-DOSE, intravenous infusion over 2 to 24 hours. Longer infusions (i.e., >2 hours) may reduce the risk of renal toxicity, particularly in patients with preexisting renal insufficiency.
*Albumin-corrected serum calcium (CCa,mg/dL) = serum calcium, mg/dL + 0.8 (4-serum albumin, g/dL).
A limited number of patients have received more than one treatment with pamidronate disodium for hypercalcemia. Retreatment with pamidronate disodium, in patients who show complete or partial response initially, may be carried out if serum calcium does not return to normal or remain normal after initial treatment. It is recommended that a minimum of 7 days elapse before retreatment, to allow for full response to the initial dose. The dose and manner of retreatment is identical to that of the initial therapy.
The recommended dose of pamidronate disodium in patients with moderate to severe Paget’s disease of bone is 30 mg daily, administered as a 4 hour infusion on 3 consecutive days for a total dose of 90 mg.
A limited number of patients with Paget’s disease have received more than one treatment of pamidronate disodium in clinical trials. When clinically indicated, patients should be retreated at the dose of initial therapy.
Osteolytic Bone Lesions of Multiple Myeloma
The recommended dose of pamidronate disodium in patients with osteolytic bone lesions of multiple myeloma is 90 mg administered as a 4 hour infusion given on a monthly basis.
Patients with marked Bence-Jones proteinuria and dehydration should receive adequate hydration prior to pamidronate disodium infusion.
Limited information is available on the use of pamidronate disodium in multiple myeloma patients with a serum creatinine ≥3 mg/dL.
Patients who receive pamidronate disodium should have serum creatinine assessed prior to each treatment. Treatment should be withheld for renal deterioration. In a clinical study, renal deterioration was defined as follows:For patients with normal baseline creatinine, increase of 0.5 mg/dL. For patients with abnormal baseline creatinine, increase of 1 mg/dL. In this clinical study, pamidronate disodium treatment was resumed only when the creatinine returned to within 10% of the baseline value.
The optimal duration of therapy is not yet known, however, in a study of patients with myeloma, final analysis after 21 months demonstrated overall benefits (see Clinical Trials).
Osteolytic Bone Metastases of Breast Cancer
The recommended dose of pamidronate disodium in patients with osteolytic bone metastases is 90 mg administered over a 2 hour infusion given every 3 to 4 weeks.
Pamidronate disodium has been frequently used with doxorubicin, fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, vinblastine, dexamethasone, prednisone, melphalan, vincristine, megestrol, and tamoxifen. It has been given less frequently with etoposide, cisplatin, cytarabine, paclitaxel, and aminoglutethimide. Patients who receive pamidronate disodium should have serum creatinine assessed prior to each treatment. Treatment should be withheld for renal deterioration.
In a clinical study, renal deterioration was defined as follows:For patients with normal baseline creatinine, increase of 0.5 mg/dL. For patients with abnormal baseline creatinine, increase of 1 mg/dL.
In this clinical study, pamidronate disodium treatment was resumed only when the creatinine returned to within 10% of the baseline value.
The optimal duration of therapy is not known, however, in two breast cancer studies, final analyses performed after 24 months of therapy demonstrated overall benefits (see Clinical Trials).
Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation
In the absence of hypercalcemia, patients with predominantly lytic bone metastases or multiple myeloma, who are at risk of calcium or vitamin D deficiency, and patients with Paget’s disease of the bone, should be given oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation in order to minimize the risk of hypocalcemia.
Method of Administration
DUE TO THE RISK OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT DETERIORATION IN RENAL FUNCTION, WHICH MAY PROGRESS TO RENAL FAILURE, SINGLE DOSES OF PAMIDRONATE DISODIUM SHOULD NOT EXCEED 90 MG (SEE WARNINGS).
There must be strict adherence to the intravenous administration recommendations for pamidronate disodium in order to decrease the risk of deterioration in renal function.
Hypercalcemia of Malignancy
The daily dose must be administered as an intravenous infusion over at least 2 to 24 hours for the 60 mg and 90 mg doses. The recommended dose should be diluted in 1000 mL of sterile 0.45% or 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose injection. This infusion solution is stable for up to 24 hours of room temperature.
The recommended daily dose of 30 mg should be diluted in 500 mL of sterile 0.45% or 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose injection, and administered over a 4 hour period for 3 consecutive days.
Osteolytic Bone Metastases of Breast Cancer
The recommended dose of 90 mg should be diluted in 250 mL of sterile 0.45% or 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose injection, and administered over a 2 hour period every 3 to 4 weeks.
Osteolytic Bone Lesions of Multiple Myeloma
The recommended dose of 90 mg should be diluted in 500 mL of sterile 0.45% or 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose injection, and administered over a 4 hour period on a monthly basis.
Pamidronate disodium must not be mixed with calcium-containing infusion solutions, such as Ringer’s solution, and should be given in a single intravenous solution and line separate from all other drugs.
Note: Parental drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
The recommended dose based on controlled trials (see CLINICAL STUDIES) is outlined in the Table below. Ibutilide infusion should be stopped as soon as the presenting arrhythmia is terminated or in the event of sustained or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, or marked prolongation of QT or QTc.Recommended Dose of Ibutilide Fumarate Injection Patient Weight Initial Infusion (over 10 minutes) Second Infusion 60 kg (132 lb) or more One vial (1 mg ibutilide fumarate) If the arrhythmia does not terminate within 10 minutes after the end of the initial infusion, a second 10-minute infusion of equal strength may be administered 10 minutes after completion of the first infusion. Less than 60 kg (132 lb) 0.1 mL/kg (0.01 mg/kg ibutilide fumarate)
In a trial comparing ibutilide and sotalol (see CLINICAL STUDIES), 2 mg ibutilide fumarate administered as a single infusion to patients weighing more than 60 kg was also effective in terminating atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter.
In the post-cardiac surgery study (see CLINICAL STUDIES), one or two intravenous infusions of 0.5 mg (0.005 mg/kg per dose for patients weighing less than 60 kg) was effective in terminating atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter.
Patients should be observed with continuous ECG monitoring for at least 4 hours following infusion or until QTc has returned to baseline. Longer monitoring is required if any arrhythmic activity is noted. Skilled personnel and proper equipment (see WARNINGS, Proarrhythmia), such as a cardioverter/defibrillator, and medication for treatment of sustained ventricular tachycardia, including polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, must be available during administration of ibutilide fumarate and subsequent monitoring of the patient.
Ibutilide fumarate injection may be administered undiluted or diluted in 50 mL of diluent. Ibutilide fumarate may be added to 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection before infusion. The contents of one 10 mL vial (0.1 mg/mL) may be added to a 50 mL infusion bag to form an admixture of approximately 0.017 mg/mL ibutilide fumarate. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
Compatibility and Stability
The following diluents are compatible with ibutilide fumarate injection (0.1 mg/mL):
5% Dextrose Injection
0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection
The following intravenous solution containers are compatible with admixtures of ibutilide fumarate injection (0.1 mg/mL):
polyvinyl chloride plastic bags
Admixtures of the product, with approved diluents, are chemically and physically stable for 24 hours at room temperature (15° to 30° C or 59° to 86° F) and for 48 hours at refrigerated temperatures (2° to 8°C or 36° to 46°F). Strict adherence to the use of aseptic technique during the preparation of the admixture is recommended in order to maintain sterility.
Ampicillin And Sulbactam
Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP may be administered by either the IV or the IM routes.
For IV administration, the dose can be given by slow intravenous injection over at least 10 to 15 minutes or can also be delivered in greater dilutions with 50 to 100 mL of a compatible diluent as an intravenous infusion over 15 to 30 minutes.
Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP may be administered by deep intramuscular injection (see Preparation for Intramuscular Injection).
The recommended adult dosage of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP is 1.5 g (1 g ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 0.5 g sulbactam as the sodium salt) to 3 g (2 g ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 1 g sulbactam as the sodium salt) every six hours. This 1.5 to 3 g range represents the total of ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP and corresponds to a range of 1 g ampicillin/0.5 g sulbactam to 2 g ampicillin/1 g sulbactam. The total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day.
Pediatric Patients 1 Year of Age or Older
The recommended daily dose of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP in pediatric patients is 300 mg per kg of body weight administered via intravenous infusion in equally divided doses every 6 hours. This 300 mg/kg/day dosage represents the total ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP, and corresponds to 200 mg ampicillin/100 mg sulbactam per kg per day. The safety and efficacy of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP administered via intramuscular injection in pediatric patients have not been established. Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations, and the total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day. The course of intravenous therapy should not routinely exceed 14 days. In clinical trials, most children received a course of oral antimicrobials following initial treatment with intravenous Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP (see CLINICAL STUDIES).
Impaired Renal Function
In patients with impairment of renal function the elimination kinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam are similarly affected, hence the ratio of one to the other will remain constant whatever the renal function. The dose of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP in such patients should be administered less frequently in accordance with the usual practice for ampicillin and according to the following recommendations:Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP Dosage Guide For Patients With Renal Impairment Creatinine Clearance (mL/min/1.73m2 Ampicillin/Sulbactam Half-Life (Hours) Recommended Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP Dosage ≥30 1 1.5 to 3 g q 6h to q 8h 15 to 29 5 1.5 to 3 g q 12h 5 to 14 9 1.5 to 3 g q 24h
When only serum creatinine is available, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to convert this value into creatinine clearance. The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.Males weight (kg) ×(140 - age) 72 × serum creatinine Females 0.85 × above value
COMPATIBILITY, RECONSTITUTION AND STABILITY:
Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP sterile powder is to be stored at 20o to 25oC (68o to 77oF) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature] prior to reconstitution.
When concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated, Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted and administered separately, due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by any of the aminopenicillins.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE:
General Dissolution Procedures
Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP sterile powder for intravenous and intramuscular use may be reconstituted with any of the compatible diluents described in this insert. Solutions should be allowed to stand after dissolution to allow any foaming to dissipate in order to permit visual inspection for complete solubilization.
Preparation for Intravenous Use
1.5 gram and 3.0 gram vials: Initially, vials for intravenous use may be reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection to yield solutions containing 375 mg Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP per mL (250 mg ampicillin/125 mg sulbactam per mL). An appropriate volume should then be immediately diluted with the following suitable parenteral diluents to yield solutions containing 3 to 45 mg Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP per mL (2 to 30 mg ampicillin/1 to 15 mg sulbactam/per mL). Reconstitution of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP at the specified concentrations, with these diluents provides stable solutions for the time periods indicated in the following table: (After the indicated time periods, any unused portions of solutions should be discarded.)Diluent Maximum Concentration (mg/mL) Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP Use Periods Sterile Water for Injection 45 (30/15) 8 hrs @ 25°C 45 (30/15) 48 hrs @ 4°C 30 (20/10) 72 hrs @ 4°C 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection 45 (30/15) 8 hrs @ 25°C 45 (30/15) 48 hrs @ 4°C 30 (20/10) 72 hrs @ 4°C 5% Dextrose injection 30 (20/10) 2 hrs @ 25°C 30 (20/10) 4 hrs @ 4°C 3 (2/1) 4 hrs @ 25°C Lactated Ringer’s Injection 45 (30/15) 8 hrs @ 25°C 45 (30/15) 24 hrs @ 4°C M/6 Sodium Lactate Injection 45 (30/15) 8 hrs @ 25°C 45 (30/15) 8 hrs @ 4°C 5% Dextrose in 0.45% Saline 3 (2/1) 4 hrs @ 25°C 15 (10/5) 4 hrs @ 4°C 10% Invert Sugar 3 (2/1) 4 hrs @ 25°C 30 (20/10) 3 hrs @ 4°C
Preparation for Intramuscular Injection
1.5 gram and 3 gram vials: Vials for intramuscular use may be reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection USP, 0.5% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection USP or 2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection USP. Consult the following table for recommended volumes to be added to obtain solutions containing 375 mg Ampicillin and Sulbactam per mL (250 mg ampicillin/125 mg sulbactam per mL). Note: Use only freshly prepared solutions and administer within one hour after preparation.Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP Vial Size Volume of Diluent to be Added Withdrawal Volume* 1.5 g 3.2 mL 4 mL 3 g 6.4 mL 8 mL
*There is sufficient excess present to allow withdrawal and administration of the stated volumes.
The dose, concentration, and infusion rate of fosphenytoin sodium injection should always be expressed as phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE). There is no need to perform molecular weight-based adjustments when converting between fosphenytoin and phenytoin sodium doses. Fosphenytoin sodium injection should always be prescribed and dispensed in phenytoin sodium equivalent units (PE). 1.5 mg of fosphenytoin sodium is equivalent to 1 mg phenytoin sodium, and is referred to as 1 mg PE. The amount and concentration of fosphenytoin is always expressed in terms of mg of phenytoin sodium equivalents (mg PE).
Do not confuse the concentration of fosphenytoin sodium injection with the total amount of drug in the vial.
Caution must be used when administering fosphenytoin sodium injection due to the risk of dosing errors (see WARNINGS). Medication errors associated with fosphenytoin sodium injection have resulted in patients receiving the wrong dose of fosphenytoin. Fosphenytoin sodium injection is marketed in 2 mL vials containing a total of 100 mg PE and 10 mL vials containing a total of 500 mg PE. Both vials contain a concentration of 50 mg PE/mL. Errors have occurred when the concentration of the vial (50 mg PE/mL) was misinterpreted to mean that the total content of the vial was 50 mg PE. These errors have resulted in two- or ten-fold overdoses of fosphenytoin sodium injection since each of the vials actually contains a total of 100 mg PE or 500 mg PE. In some cases, ten-fold overdoses were associated with fatal outcomes. To help minimize confusion, the prescribed dose of fosphenytoin sodium injection should always be expressed in milligrams of phenytoin equivalents (mg PE). Additionally, when ordering and storing fosphenytoin sodium injection, consider displaying the total drug content (i.e., 100 mg PE/ 2 mL or 500 mg PE/ 10 mL) instead of concentration in computer systems, pre-printed orders, and automated dispensing cabinet databases to help ensure that total drug content can be clearly identified. Care should be taken to ensure the appropriate volume of fosphenytoin sodium injection is withdrawn from the vial when preparing the dose for administration. Attention to these details may prevent some fosphenytoin sodium injection medication errors from occurring.
Prior to IV infusion, dilute fosphenytoin sodium injection in 5% dextrose or 0.9% saline solution for injection to a concentration ranging from 1.5 to 25 mg PE/mL. The maximum concentration of fosphenytoin sodium injection in any solution should be 25 mg PE/mL. When fosphenytoin sodium injection is given as an intravenous infusion, fosphenytoin sodium injection needs to be diluted and should only be administered at a rate not exceeding 150 mg PE/min.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Status EpilepticusThe loading dose of fosphenytoin sodium injection is 15 to 20 mg PE/kg administered at 100 to 150 mg PE/min. Because of the risk of hypotension, fosphenytoin sodium injection should be administered no faster than 150 mg PE/min. Continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and respiratory function is essential and the patient should be observed throughout the period where maximal serum phenytoin concentrations occur, approximately 10 to 20 minutes after the end of fosphenytoin sodium injection infusions. Because the full antiepileptic effect of phenytoin, whether given as fosphenytoin sodium injection or parenteral phenytoin, is not immediate, other measures, including concomitant administration of an IV benzodiazepine, will usually be necessary for the control of status epilepticus. The loading dose should be followed by maintenance doses of fosphenytoin sodium injection or phenytoin.
If administration of fosphenytoin sodium injection does not terminate seizures, the use of other anticonvulsants and other appropriate measures should be considered.
Even though loading doses of fosphenytoin sodium injection have been given by the IM route for other indications when IV access is impossible, IM fosphenytoin sodium injection should ordinarily not be used in the treatment of status epilepticus because therapeutic phenytoin concentrations may not be reached as quickly as with IV administration.
Nonemergent Loading and Maintenance Dosing
Because of the risks of cardiac and local toxicity associated with intravenous fosphenytoin sodium injection, oral phenytoin should be used whenever possible.
The loading dose of fosphenytoin sodium injection is 10 to 20 mg PE/kg given IV or IM. The rate of administration for IV fosphenytoin sodium injection should be no greater than 150 mg PE/min. Continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and respiratory function is essential and the patient should be observed throughout the period where maximal serum phenytoin concentrations occur (approximately 20 minutes after the end of fosphenytoin sodium injection infusion).
The initial daily maintenance dose of fosphenytoin sodium injection is 4 to 6 mg PE/kg/day in divided doses.
IM or IV Substitution For Oral Phenytoin Therapy
When treatment with oral phenytoin is not possible, fosphenytoin sodium injection can be substituted for oral phenytoin at the same total daily dose.
Dilantin capsules are approximately 90% bioavailable by the oral route. Phenytoin, supplied as fosphenytoin sodium injection, is 100% bioavailable by both the IM and IV routes. For this reason, plasma phenytoin concentrations may increase modestly when IM or IV fosphenytoin sodium injection is substituted for oral phenytoin sodium therapy. The rate of administration for IV fosphenytoin sodium injection should be no greater than 150 mg PE/min. In controlled trials, IM fosphenytoin sodium injection was administered as a single daily dose utilizing either 1 or 2 injection sites. Some patients may require more frequent dosing.
Dosing in Special Populations
Patients with Renal or Hepatic Disease: Due to an increased fraction of unbound phenytoin in patients with renal or hepatic disease, or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the interpretation of total phenytoin plasma concentrations should be made with caution (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations). Unbound phenytoin concentrations may be more useful in these patient populations. After IV fosphenytoin sodium injection administration to patients with renal and/or hepatic disease, or in those with hypoalbuminemia, fosphenytoin clearance to phenytoin may be increased without a similar increase in phenytoin clearance. This has the potential to increase the frequency and severity of adverse events (see PRECAUTIONS).
Elderly Patients: Age does not have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of fosphenytoin following fosphenytoin sodium injection administration. Phenytoin clearance is decreased slightly in elderly patients and lower or less frequent dosing may be required.
Pediatric: The safety and efficacy of fosphenytoin sodium injection in pediatric patients has not been established.
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