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The recommended initial dose of guanfacine tablets when given alone or in combination with another antihypertensive drug is 1 mg daily given at bedtime to minimize somnolence. If after 3 to 4 weeks of therapy, 1 mg does not give a satisfactory result, a dose of 2 mg may be given, although most of the effect of guanfacine is seen at 1 mg (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Higher daily doses have been used, but adverse reactions increase significantly with doses above 3 mg/day.
The frequency of rebound hypertension is low, but it can occur. When rebound occurs, it does so after 2 to 4 days, which is delayed compared with clonidine hydrochloride. This is consistent with the longer half-life of guanfacine. In most cases, after abrupt withdrawal of guanfacine, blood pressure returns to pretreatment levels slowly (within 2 to 4 days) without ill effects.
The patient should be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet before receiving Lovastatin Tablets and should continue on this diet during treatment with Lovastatin Tablets (see NCEP Treatment Guidelines for details on dietary therapy). Lovastatin Tablets should be given with meals.
The usual recommended starting dose is 20 mg once a day given with the evening meal. The recommended dosing range is 10-80 mg/day in single or two divided doses; the maximum recommended dose is 80 mg/day. Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy (see NCEP Guidelines and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Patients requiring reductions in LDL-C of 20% or more to achieve their goal (see INDICATIONS ANDUSAGE) should be started on 20 mg/day of Lovastatin Tablets. A starting dose of 10 mg may be considered for patients requiring smaller reductions.
Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more.
Cholesterol levels should be monitored periodically and consideration should be given to reducing the dosage of Lovastatin Tablets if cholesterol levels fall significantly below the targeted range.
Dosage in Patients taking Cyclosporine or Danazol
In patients taking cyclosporine or danazol concomitantly with lovastatin (see WARNINGS, Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis), therapy should begin with 10 mg of Lovastatin Tablets and should not exceed 20 mg/day.
Dosage in Patients taking Amiodarone or Verapamil
In patients taking amiodarone or verapamil concomitantly with lovastatin, the dose should not exceed 40 mg/day (see WARNINGS,Myopathy/Rhabdomyolyis and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions, Other drug interactions).
Adolescent Patients (10-17 years of age) with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
The recommended dosing range is 10-40 mg/day; the maximum recommended dose is 40 mg/day. Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy (see NCEP Pediatric Panel Guidelines++, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and INDICATIONS AND USAGE). Patients requiring reductions in LDL-C of 20% or more to achieve their goal should be started on 20 mg/day of lovastatin. A starting dose of 10 mg may be considered for patients requiring smaller reductions. Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more.
++ National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP): Highlights of the Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 89(3):495-501.1992.
Concomitant Lipid-Lowering Therapy
Lovastatin is effective alone or when used concomitantly with bile-acid sequestrants. If lovastatin is used in combination with gemfibrozil, other fibrates or lipid-lowering doses (≥1 g/day) of niacin, the dose of lovastatin should not exceed 20 mg/day (see WARNINGS, Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Dosage in Patients with Renal Insufficiency
In patients with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), dosage increases above 20 mg/day should be carefully considered and, if deemed necessary, implemented cautiously (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and WARNINGS, Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis).
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of oxaprozin and other treatment options before deciding to use oxaprozin. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with oxaprozin, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, the usual recommended dose is 1200 mg (two 600-mg tablets) given orally once a day (see Individualization of dosage).
For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, the usual recommended dose is 1200 mg (two 600-mg tablets) given orally once a day (see Individualization of dosage).
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of JRA in patients 6-16 years of age, the recommended dose given orally once per day should be based on body weight of the patient as given in Table 3 (see also Individualization of dosage).Table 3 Body Weight Range (kg) Dose (mg) 22 – 31 600 32 – 54 900 ≥ 55 1200
(see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special populations: Pediatric patients)
INDIVIDUALIZATION OF DOSAGE
As with other NSAIDs, the lowest dose should be sought for each patient. Therefore, after observing the response to initial therapy with oxaprozin, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs. In osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, the dosage should be individualized to the lowest effective dose of oxaprozin to minimize adverse effects. The maximum recommended total daily dose of oxaprozin in adults is 1800 mg (26 mg/kg, whichever is lower) in divided doses. In children, doses greater than 1200 mg have not been studied.
Patients of low body weight should initiate therapy with 600 mg once daily. Patients with severe renal impairment or on dialysis should also initiate therapy with 600 mg once daily. If there is insufficient relief of symptoms in such patients, the dose may be cautiously increased to 1200 mg, but only with close monitoring (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations).
In adults, in cases where a quick onset of action is important, the pharmacokinetics of oxaprozin allow therapy to be started with a one-time loading dose of 1200 to 1800 mg (not to exceed 26 mg/kg). Doses larger than 1200 mg/day on a chronic basis should be reserved for patients who weigh more than 50 kg, have normal renal and hepatic function, are at low risk of peptic ulcer, and whose severity of disease justifies maximal therapy. Physicians should ensure that patients are tolerating doses in the 600 to 1200 mg/day range without gastroenterologic, renal, hepatic, or dermatologic adverse effects before advancing to the larger doses. Most patients will tolerate once-a-day dosing with oxaprozin, although divided doses may be tried in patients unable to tolerate single doses.
SAFETY AND HANDLING
Oxaprozin is supplied as a solid dosage form in closed containers, is not known to produce contact dermatitis, and poses no known risk to healthcare workers. It may be disposed of in accordance with applicable local regulations governing the disposal of pharmaceuticals.
DOSAGE MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED. The initial dosage of doxazosin mesylate tablets in patients with hypertension and/or BPH is 1 mg given once daily in the a.m. or p.m. This starting dose is intended to minimize the frequency of postural hypotension and first dose syncope associated with doxazosin mesylate tablets. Postural effects are most likely to occur between 2 and 6 hours after a dose. Therefore, blood pressure measurements should be taken during this time period after the first dose and with each increase in dose. If administration of doxazosin mesylate tablets is discontinued for several days, therapy should be restarted using the initial dosing regimen.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 1 to 8 mg once daily.
The initial dosage of doxazosin mesylate tablets is 1 mg, given once daily in the a.m. or p.m. Depending on the individual patient’s urodynamics and BPH symptomatology, dosage may then be increased to 2 mg and thereafter to 4 mg and 8 mg once daily, the maximum recommended dose for BPH. The recommended titration interval is 1 to 2 weeks. Blood pressure should be evaluated routinely in these patients.
Hypertension 1 to 16 mg once daily.
The initial dosage of doxazosin mesylate tablets is 1 mg given once daily. Depending on the individual patient’s standing blood pressure response (based on measurements taken at 2 to 6 hours post-dose and 24 hours post-dose), dosage may then be increased to 2 mg and thereafter if necessary to 4 mg, 8 mg and 16 mg to achieve the desired reduction in blood pressure. Increases in dose beyond 4 mg increase the likelihood of excessive postural effects including syncope, postural dizziness/vertigo and postural hypotension. At a titrated dose of 16 mg once daily the frequency of postural effects is about 12% compared to 3% for placebo.
Hypertension: The initial dose of atenolol is 50 mg given as one tablet a day either alone or added to diuretic therapy. The full effect of this dose will usually be seen within one to two weeks. If an optimal response is not achieved, the dosage should be increased to atenolol 100 mg given as one tablet a day. Increasing the dosage beyond 100 mg a day is unlikely to produce any further benefit.
Atenolol may be used alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents including thiazide-type diuretics, hydralazine, prazosin, and alpha-methyldopa.
Angina Pectoris: The initial dose of atenolol is 50 mg given as one tablet a day. If an optimal response is not achieved within one week, the dosage should be increased to atenolol 100 mg given as one tablet a day. Some patients may require a dosage of 200 mg once a day for optimal effect.
Twenty-four hour control with once daily dosing is achieved by giving doses larger than necessary to achieve an immediate maximum effect. The maximum early effect on exercise tolerance occurs with doses of 50 to 100 mg, but at these doses the effect at 24 hours is attenuated, averaging about 50% to 75% of that observed with once a day oral doses of 200 mg.
Acute Myocardial Infarction: In patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction, treatment with atenolol injection should be initiated as soon as possible after the patient’s arrival in the hospital and after eligibility is established. Such treatment should be initiated in a coronary care or similar unit immediately after the patient’s hemodynamic condition has stabilized. Treatment should begin with the intravenous administration of 5 mg atenolol over 5 minutes followed by another 5 mg intravenous injection 10 minutes later. Atenolol injection should be administered under carefully controlled conditions including monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram. Dilutions of atenolol injection in Dextrose Injection USP, Sodium Chloride Injection USP, or Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection may be used. These admixtures are stable for 48 hours if they are not used immediately.
In patients who tolerate the full intravenous dose (10 mg), atenolol tablets 50 mg should be initiated 10 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by another 50 mg oral dose 12 hours later. Thereafter, atenolol can be given orally either 100 mg once daily or 50 mg twice a day for a further 6 to 9 days or until discharge from the hospital. If bradycardia or hypotension requiring treatment or any other untoward effects occur, atenolol should be discontinued. (See full prescribing information prior to initiating therapy with atenolol tablets.)
Data from other beta blocker trials suggest that if there is any question concerning the use of IV beta blocker or clinical estimate that there is a contraindication, the IV beta blocker may be eliminated and patients fulfilling the safety criteria may be given atenolol tablets 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg once a day for at least seven days (if the IV dosing is excluded).
Although the demonstration of efficacy of atenolol is based entirely on data from the first seven postinfarction days, data from other beta blocker trials suggest that treatment with beta blockers that are effective in the postinfarction setting may be continued for one to three years if there are no contraindications.
Atenolol is an additional treatment to standard coronary care unit therapy.
Elderly Patients or Patients with Renal Impairment: Atenolol is excreted by the kidneys; consequently dosage should be adjusted in cases of severe impairment of renal function. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Evaluation of patients with hypertension or myocardial infarction should always include assessment of renal function. Atenolol excretion would be expected to decrease with advancing age.
No significant accumulation of atenolol occurs until creatinine clearance falls below 35 mL/min/1.73 m2. Accumulation of atenolol and prolongation of its half-life were studied in subjects with creatinine clearance between 5 and 105 mL/min. Peak plasma levels were significantly increased in subjects with creatinine clearances below 30 mL/min.
The following maximum oral dosages are recommended for elderly, renally-impaired patients and for patients with renal impairment due to other causes:
MaximumDosage 15-35 16-27 50 mg daily <15 >27 25 mg daily
Some renally-impaired or elderly patients being treated for hypertension may require a lower starting dose of atenolol: 25 mg given as one tablet a day. If this 25 mg dose is used, assessment of efficacy must be made carefully. This should include measurement of blood pressure just prior to the next dose (“trough” blood pressure) to ensure that the treatment effect is present for a full 24 hours.
Although a similar dosage reduction may be considered for elderly and/or renally-impaired patients being treated for indications other than hypertension, data are not available for these patient populations.
Patients on hemodialysis should be given 25 mg or 50 mg after each dialysis; this should be done under hospital supervision as marked falls in blood pressure can occur.
Cessation of Therapy in Patient with Angina Pectoris: If withdrawal of atenolol therapy is planned, it should be achieved gradually and patients should be carefully observed and advised to limit physical activity to a minimum.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of meloxicam and other treatment options before deciding to use meloxicam. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with meloxicam, the dose should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis the recommended starting and maintenance oral dose of meloxicam is 7.5 mg once daily. Some patients may receive additional benefit by increasing the dose to 15 mg once daily.
The maximum recommended daily oral dose of meloxicam is 15 mg.
Meloxicam may be taken without regard to timing of meals.
Active Duodenal Ulcer
The recommended oral dosage for adults is 300 mg once daily at bedtime. An alternative dosage regimen is 150 mg twice daily.
Maintenance of Healed Duodenal Ulcer
The recommended oral dosage for adults is 150 mg once daily at bedtime.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
The recommended oral dosage in adults for the treatment of erosions, ulcerations, and associated heartburn is 150 mg twice daily.
Active Benign Gastric Ulcer
The recommended oral dosage is 300 mg given either as 150 mg twice daily or 300 mg once daily at bedtime. Prior to treatment, care should be taken to exclude the possibility of malignant gastric ulceration.
Dosage Adjustment for Patients With Moderate to Severe Renal Insufficiency
The dose for patients with renal dysfunction should be reduced as follows:
Active Duodenal Ulcer, GERD and Benign Gastric UlcerCcr Dose 20-50 mL/min 150 mg daily <20 mL/min 150 mg every other day
Maintenance TherapyCcr Dose 20-50 mL/min 150 mg every other day <20 mL/min 150 mg every 3 days
Some elderly patients may have creatinine clearances of less than 50 mL/min, and, based on pharmacokinetic data in patients with renal impairment, the dose for such patients should be reduced accordingly. The clinical effects of this dosage reduction in patients with renal failure have not been evaluated.
Dosage for Adults
The recommended starting dose for Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets in adult patients is 50 mg, administered as a single daily dose at bedtime. In the controlled clinical trials establishing the effectiveness of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets in OCD, patients were titrated within a dose range of 100 to 300 mg/day. Consequently, the dose should be increased in 50 mg increments every 4 to 7 days, as tolerated, until maximum therapeutic benefit is achieved, not to exceed 300 mg per day. It is advisable that a total daily dose of more than 100 mg should be given in two divided doses. If the doses are not equal, the larger dose should be given at bedtime.
Dosage for Pediatric Population (children and adolescents)
The recommended starting dose for Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets in pediatric populations (ages 8-17 years) is 25 mg, administered as a single daily dose at bedtime. In a controlled clinical trial establishing the effectiveness of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets in OCD, pediatric patients (ages 8-17) were titrated within a dose range of 50 to 200 mg/day. Physicians should consider age and gender differences when dosing pediatric patients. The maximum dose in children up to age 11 should not exceed 200 mg/day. Therapeutic effect in female children may be achieved with lower doses. Dose adjustment in adolescents (up to the adult maximum dose of 300 mg) may be indicated to achieve therapeutic benefit. The dose should be increased in 25 mg increments every 4 to 7 days, as tolerated, until maximum therapeutic benefit is achieved. It is advisable that a total daily dose of more than 50 mg should be given in two divided doses. If the two divided doses are not equal, the larger dose should be given at bedtime.
Dosage for Elderly or Hepatically Impaired Patients
Elderly patients and those with hepatic impairment have been observed to have a decreased clearance of fluvoxamine maleate. Consequently, it may be appropriate to modify the initial dose and the subsequent dose titration for these patient groups.
Maintenance/Continuation Extended Treatment
Although the efficacy of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets beyond 10 weeks of dosing for OCD has not been documented in controlled trials, OCD is a chronic condition, and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.
Treatment of Pregnant Women During the Third trimester
Neonates exposed to fluvoxamine maleate tablets and other SSRIs or SNRIs late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding (see PRECAUTIONS). When treating pregnant women with fluvoxamine maleate tablets during the third trimester, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of treatment. The physician may consider tapering fluvoxamine maleate tablets in the third trimester.
Discontinuation of Treatment with Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets
Symptoms associated with discontinuation of other SSRIs and SNRIs have been reported (see PRECAUTIONS). Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of piroxicam and other treatment options before deciding to use piroxicam. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with piroxicam, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
For the relief of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, the recommended dose is 20 mg given orally once per day. If desired, the daily dose may be divided. Because of the long half-life of piroxicam, steady-state blood levels are not reached for 7-12 days. Therefore, although the therapeutic effects of piroxicam are evident early in treatment, there is a progressive increase in response over several weeks and the effect of therapy should not be assessed for two weeks.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of etodolac and other treatment options before deciding to use etodolac. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with etodolac, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
Dosage adjustment of etodolac is generally not required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Etodolac should be used with caution in such patients, because, as with other NSAIDs, it may further decrease renal function in some patients with impaired renal function (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects).
The recommended total daily dose of etodolac for acute pain is up to 1000 mg, given as 200-400 mg every 6 to 8 hours. Doses of etodolac greater than 1000 mg/day have not been adequately evaluated in well-controlled clinical trials.
Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
The recommended starting dose of etodolac for the management of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis is: 300 mg b.i.d., t.i.d., or 400 mg b.i.d., or 500 mg b.i.d. A lower dose of 600 mg/day may suffice for long-term administration. Physicians should be aware that doses above 1000 mg/day have not been adequately evaluated in well-controlled clinical trials.
In chronic conditions, a therapeutic response to therapy with etodolac is sometimes seen within one week of therapy, but most often is observed by two weeks. After a satisfactory response has been achieved, the patient’s dose should be reviewed and adjusted as required.
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