Glenview Pharma Inc.
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Glenview Pharma Inc. Drugs
Captopril tablets should be taken one hour before meals. Dosage must be individualized.
Hypertension: Initiation of therapy requires consideration of recent antihypertensive drug treatment, the extent of blood pressure elevation, salt restriction, and other clinical circumstances. If possible, discontinue the patient's previous antihypertensive drug regimen for one week before starting captopril.
The initial dose of Captopril Tablets, USP is 25 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d. If satisfactory reduction of blood pressure has not been achieved after one or two weeks, the dose may be increased to 50 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d. Concomitant sodium restriction may be beneficial when captopril is used alone.
The dose of captopril in hypertension usually does not exceed 50 mg t.i.d. Therefore, if the blood pressure has not been satisfactorily controlled after one to two weeks at this dose, (and the patient is not already receiving a diuretic), a modest dose of thiazide-type diuretic (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide, 25 mg daily), should be added. The diuretic dose may be increased at one- to two-week intervals until its highest usual antihypertensive dose is reached.
If captopril is being started in a patient already receiving a diuretic, captopril therapy should be initiated under close medical supervision (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions regarding hypotension), with dosage and titration of captopril as noted above.
If further blood pressure reduction is required, the dose of captopril may be increased to 100 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d. and then, if necessary, to 150 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d . (while continuing the diuretic). The usual dose range is 25 to 150 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d. A maximum daily dose of 450 mg captopril should not be exceeded.
For patients with severe hypertension (e.g., accelerated or malignant hypertension), when temporary discontinuation of current antihypertensive therapy is not practical or desirable, or when prompt titration to more normotensive blood pressure levels is indicated, diuretic should be continued but other current antihypertensive medication stopped and captopril dosage promptly initiated at 25 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d., under close medical supervision.
When necessitated by the patient's clinical condition, the daily dose of captopril may be increased every 24 hours or less under continuous medical supervision until a satisfactory blood pressure response is obtained or the maximum dose of captopril is reached. In this regimen, addition of a more potent diuretic, e.g., furosemide, may also be indicated.
Beta-blockers may also be used in conjunction with captopril therapy (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions), but the effects of the two drugs are less than additive.
Heart Failure: Initiation of therapy requires consideration of recent diuretic therapy and the possibility of severe salt/volume depletion. In patients with either normal or low blood pressure, who have been vigorously treated with diuretics and who may be hyponatremic and/or hypovolemic, a starting dose of 6.25 or 12.5 mg t.i.d. may minimize the magnitude or duration of the hypotensive effect (see WARNINGS: Hypotension); for these patients, titration to the usual daily dosage can then occur within the next several days.
For most patients the usual initial daily dosage is 25 mg t.i.d. After a dose of 50 mg t.i.d. is reached, further increases in dosage should be delayed, where possible, for at least two weeks to determine if a satisfactory response occurs. Most patients studied have had a satisfactory clinical improvement at 50 or 100 mg t.i.d. A maximum daily dose of 450 mg of captopril should not be exceeded.
Captopril should generally be used in conjunction with a diuretic and digitalis.
Captopril therapy must be initiated under very close medical supervision.
Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Myocardial Infarction: The recommended dose for long-term use in patients following a myocardial infarction is a target maintenance dose of 50 mg t.i.d.
Therapy may be initiated as early as three days following a myocardial infarction. After a single dose of 6.25 mg, captopril tablets therapy should be initiated at 12.5 mg t.i.d. Captopril tablets should then be increased to 25 mg t.i.d. during the next several days and to a target dose of 50 mg t.i.d. over the next several weeks as tolerated (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
Captopril tablets may be used in patients treated with other post-myocardial infarction therapies, e.g. thrombolytics, aspirin, beta blockers.
Diabetic Nephropathy: The recommended dose of captopril tablets for long term use to treat diabetic nephropathy is 25 mg t.i.d.
Other antihypertensives such as diuretics, beta blockers, centrally acting agents or vasodilators may be used in conjunction with captopril tablets if additional therapy is required to further lower blood pressure.
Dosage Adjustment in Renal Impairment: Because captopril is excreted primarily by the kidneys, excretion rates are reduced in patients with impaired renal function. These patients will take longer to reach steady-state captopril levels and will reach higher steady-state levels for a given daily dose than patients with normal renal function. Therefore, these patients may respond to smaller or less frequent doses.
Accordingly, for patients with significant renal impairment, initial daily dosage of captopril should be reduced, and smaller increments utilized for titration, which should be quite slow (one- to two-week intervals). After the desired therapeutic effect has been achieved, the dose should be slowly back titrated to determine the minimal effective dose. When concomitant diuretic therapy is required, a loop diuretic (e.g., furosemide), rather than a thiazide diuretic, is preferred in patients with severe renal impairment. (See WARNINGS: Anaphylactoid reactions during membrane exposure and PRECAUTIONS: Hemodialysis.)
Dosage should be initiated at a low level and increased gradually, noting carefully the clinical response and any evidence of intolerance.
Initial Dosage for Adults
For outpatients, 75 mg of amitriptyline HCl a day in divided doses is usually satisfactory. If necessary, this may be increased to a total of 150 mg per day. Increases are made preferably in the late afternoon and/or bedtime doses. A sedative effect may be apparent before the antidepressant effect is noted, but an adequate therapeutic effect may take as long as 30 days to develop.
An alternate method of initiating therapy in outpatients is to begin with 50 to 100 mg amitriptyline HCl at bedtime. This may be increased by 25 or 50 mg as necessary in the bedtime dose to a total of 150 mg per day.
Hospitalized patients may require 100 mg a day initially. This can be increased gradually to 200 mg a day if necessary. A small number of hospitalized patients may need as much as 300 mg a day.
Adolescent and Elderly Patients
In general, lower dosages are recommended for these patients. Ten mg 3 times a day with 20 mg at bedtime may be satisfactory in adolescent and elderly patients who do not tolerate higher dosages.
The usual maintenance dosage of amitriptyline HCl is 50 to 100 mg per day. In some patients, 40 mg per day is sufficient. For maintenance therapy, the total daily dosage may be given in a single dose, preferably at bedtime. When satisfactory improvement has been reached, dosage should be reduced to the lowest amount that will maintain relief of symptoms. It is appropriate to continue maintenance therapy 3 months or longer to lessen the possibility of relapse.
Usage in Pediatric Patients
In view of the lack of experience with the use of this drug in pediatric patients, it is not recommended at the present time for patients under 12 years of age.
Because of the wide variation in the absorption and distribution of tricyclic antidepressants in body fluids, it is difficult to directly correlate plasma levels and therapeutic effect. However, determination of plasma levels may be useful in identifying patients who appear to have toxic effects and may have excessively high levels, or those in whom lack of absorption or noncompliance is suspected. Because of increased intestinal transit time and decreased hepatic metabolism in elderly patients, plasma levels are generally higher for a given oral dose of amitriptyline hydrochloride than in younger patients. Elderly patients should be monitored carefully and quantitative serum levels obtained as clinically appropriate. Adjustments in dosage should be made according to the patient's clinical response and not on the basis of plasma levels.
2 Hollister, L.E.; Monitoring Tricyclic Antidepressant Plasma Concentrations. JAMA 1979; 241(23):2530-2533.
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