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2.1 Administration Information
Administer gabapentin capsules orally with or without food.
Gabapentin capsules should be swallowed whole with water.
If gabapentin capsules dose is reduced, discontinued, or substituted with an alternative medication, this should be done gradually over a minimum of 1 week (a longer period may be needed at the discretion of the prescriber).
2.2 Dosage for Postherpetic Neuralgia
In adults with postherpetic neuralgia, gabapentin capsules therapy may be initiated on Day 1 as a single 300 mg dose, on Day 2 as 600 mg/day (300 mg two times a day), and on Day 3 as 900 mg/day (300 mg three times a day). The dose can subsequently be titrated up as needed for pain relief to a dose of 1800 mg/day (600 mg three times a day). In clinical studies, efficacy was demonstrated over a range of doses from 1800 mg/day to 3600 mg/day with comparable effects across the dose range; however, in these clinical studies, the additional benefit of using doses greater than 1800 mg/day was not demonstrated.
2.3 Dosage for Epilepsy with Partial Onset Seizures
Patients 12 years of age and above
The starting dose is 300 mg three times a day. The recommended maintenance dose of gabapentin capsules is 300 mg to 600 mg three times a day. Dosages up to 2400 mg/day have been well tolerated in long-term clinical studies. Doses of 3600 mg/day have also been administered to a small number of patients for a relatively short duration, and have been well tolerated. Administer gabapentin capsules three times a day using 300 mg or 400 mg capsules, or 600 mg or 800 mg tablets. The maximum time between doses should not exceed 12 hours
Pediatric Patients Age 3 to 11 years
The starting dose range is 10 mg/kg/day to 15 mg/kg/day, given in three divided doses, and the recommended maintenance dose reached by upward titration over a period of approximately 3 days. The recommended maintenance dose of gabapentin in patients 3 to 4 years of age is 40 mg/kg/day, given in three divided doses. The recommended maintenance dose of gabapentin in patients 5 to 11 years of age is 25 mg/kg/day to 35 mg/kg/day, given in three divided doses. Gabapentin may be administered as the oral solution, capsule, or tablet, or using combinations of these formulations. Dosages up to 50 mg/kg/day have been well tolerated in a long-term clinical study. The maximum time interval between doses should not exceed 12 hours.
2.4 Dosage Adjustment in Patients with Renal Impairment
2.5 Dosage in Elderly
Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and dose should be adjusted based on creatinine clearance values in these patients.
Extra Strength Pain Reliever Pm
Table 1. Recommended Daily Dosage by Indication Initial Dose Titration(Increments) Target Dose EffectiveDose Range Schizophrenia: adults (2.1) 2 mg 1 to 2 mg 4 to 8 mg 4 to 16 mg Schizophrenia: adolescents (2.2) 0.5 mg 0.5 to 1 mg 3 mg 1 to 6 mg Bipolar mania: adults (2.2) 2 to 3 mg 1 mg 1 to 6 mg 1 to 6 mg Bipolar mania: children and adolescents (2.2) 0.5 mg 0.5 to 1 mg 1 to 2.5 mg 1 to 6 mg Irritability in autistic disorder (2.3) 0.25 mgCan increase to 0.5 mg by Day 4:(body weight lessthan 20 kg) 0.5 mg Can increase to 1 mg by Day 4: (body weightgreater than orequal to 20 kg) After Day 4, at Interval of > 2 weeks:0.25 mg (body weight lessthan 20 kg)0.5 mg (body weightgreater than orequal to 20 kg) 0.5 mg:(body weight lessthan 20 kg)1 mg:(body weightgreater than orequal to 20 kg) 0.5 to 3 mg
Severe Renal and Hepatic Impairment in Adults: use a lower starting dose of 0.5 mg twice daily.
May increase to dosages above 1.5 mg twice daily at intervals of one week or longer.
Usual Initial Dose
Risperidone tablets can be administered once or twice daily. Initial dosing is 2 mg per day. May increase the dose at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 1 to 2 mg per day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 4 to 8 mg per day. In some patients, slower titration may be appropriate. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a range of 4 mg to 16 mg per day. However, doses above 6 mg per day for twice daily dosing were not demonstrated to be more efficacious than lower doses, were associated with more extrapyramidal symptoms and other adverse effects, and are generally not recommended. In a single study supporting once-daily dosing, the efficacy results were generally stronger for 8 mg than for 4 mg. The safety of doses above 16 mg per day has not been evaluated in clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
The initial dose is 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in the morning or evening. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 0.5 mg or 1 mg per day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 3 mg per day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of adolescent patients with schizophrenia at doses between 1 mg and 6 mg per day, no additional benefit was observed above 3 mg per day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg per day have not been studied.
Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily.
While it is unknown how long a patient with schizophrenia should remain on risperidone tablets, the effectiveness of risperidone tablets 2 mg per day to 8 mg per day at delaying relapse was demonstrated in a controlled trial in adult patients who had been clinically stable for at least 4 weeks and were then followed for a period of 1 to 2 years [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Both adult and adolescent patients who respond acutely should generally be maintained on their effective dose beyond the acute episode. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.
Reinitiation of Treatment in Patients Previously Discontinued
Although there are no data to specifically address reinitiation of treatment, it is recommended that after an interval off risperidone tablets, the initial titration schedule should be followed.
Switching From Other Antipsychotics
There are no systematically collected data to specifically address switching schizophrenic patients from other antipsychotics to risperidone tablets, or treating patients with concomitant antipsychotics.
2.2 Bipolar Mania
The inital dose range is 2 mg to 3 mg per day. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 1 mg per day. The effective dose range is 1 mg to 6 mg per day, as studied in the short-term, placebo-controlled trials. In these trials, short-term (3 week) anti-manic efficacy was demonstrated in a flexible dosage range of 1 mg to 6 mg per day [see Clinical Studies (14.2,14.3)]. Risperidone tablets doses higher than 6 mg per day were not studied.
The inital dose is 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in the morning or evening. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 0.5 mg or 1 mg per day, as tolerated, to the recommended target dose of 1 mg to 2.5 mg per day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of pediatric patients with bipolar mania at doses between 0.5 mg and 6 mg per day, no additional benefit was observed above 2.5 mg per day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg per day have not been studied.
Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily.
There is no body of evidence available from controlled trials to guide a clinician in the longer-term management of a patient who improves during treatment of an acute manic episode with risperidone tablets. While it is generally agreed that pharmacological treatment beyond an acute response in mania is desirable, both for maintenance of the initial response and for prevention of new manic episodes, there are no systematically obtained data to support the use of risperidone tablets in such longer-term treatment (i.e., beyond 3 weeks). The physician who elects to use risperidone tablets for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.
2.3 Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder - Pediatrics (Children and Adolescents)
The dosage of risperidone tablets should be individualized according to the response and tolerability of the patient. The total daily dose of risperidone tablets can be administered once daily, or half the total daily dose can be administered twice daily.
For patients with body weight less than 20 kg, initiate dosing at 0.25 mg per day. For patients with body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg, initiate dosing at 0.5 mg per day. After a minimum of four days, the dose may be increased to the recommended dose of 0.5 mg per day for patients less than 20 kg and 1.0 mg per day for patients greater than or equal to 20 kg. Maintain this dose for a minimum of 14 days. In patients not achieving sufficient clinical response, the dose may be increased at intervals of 2 weeks or greater, in increments of 0.25 mg per day for patients less than 20 kg, or increments of 0.5 mg per day for patients greater than or equal to 20 kg. The effective dose range is 0.5 mg to 3 mg per day. No dosing data are available for children who weigh less than 15 kg.
Once sufficient clinical response has been achieved and maintained, consider gradually lowering the dose to achieve the optimal balance of efficacy and safety. The physician who elects to use risperidone tablets for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.
Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a once-daily dose administered at bedtime or administering half the daily dose twice daily, or a reduction of the dose.
2.4 Dosing in Patients with Severe Renal or Hepatic Impairment
For patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) or hepatic impairment (10-15 points on Child Pugh System), the initial starting dose is 0.5 mg twice daily. The dose may be increased in increments of 0.5 mg or less, administered twice daily. For doses above 1.5 mg twice daily, increase in intervals of one week or greater [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6 and 8.7)].
2.5 Dose Adjustments for Specific Drug Interactions
When risperidone tablets are co-administered with enzyme inducers (e.g., carbamazepine), the dose of risperidone tablets should be increased up to double the patient’s usual dose. It may be necessary to decrease the risperidone tablets dose when enzyme inducers such as carbamazepine are discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Similar effect may be expected with co-administration of risperidone tablets with other enzyme inducers (e.g., phenytoin, rifampin, and phenobarbital).
When fluoxetine or paroxetine is co-administered with risperidone tablets, the dose of risperidone tablets should be reduced. The risperidone tablets dose should not exceed 8 mg per day in adults when co-administered with these drugs. When initiating therapy, risperidone tablets should be titrated slowly. It may be necessary to increase the risperidone tablets dose when enzyme inhibitors such as fluoxetine or paroxetine are discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
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