Nostrum Laboratories Inc.
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Nostrum Laboratories Inc. Drugs
Theophylline (Anhydrous) Extended-Release Tablets 400 or 600 mg Tablets can be taken once a day in the morning or evening. It is recommended that Theophylline (Anhydrous) Extended-Release Tablets be taken with meals. Patients should be advised that if they choose to take Theophylline (Anhydrous) Extended-Release Tablets with food it should be taken consistently with food and if they take it in a fasted condition it should routinely be taken fasted. It is important that the product whenever dosed be dosed consistently with or without food.
Theophylline (Anhydrous) Extended-Release Tablets are not to be chewed or crushed because it may lead to a rapid release of theophylline with the potential for toxicity. The scored tablet may be split. Infrequently, patients receiving Theophylline (Anhydrous) Extended-Release 400 or 600 mg Tablets may pass an intact matrix tablet in the stool or via colostomy. These matrix tablets usually contain little or no residual theophylline.
Stabilized patients, 12 years of age or older, who are taking an immediate-release or controlled-release theophylline product may be transferred to once-daily administration of 400 mg or 600 mg Theophylline (Anhydrous) Extended-Release Tablets on a mg-for-mg basis.
It must be recognized that the peak and trough serum theophylline levels produced by the once-daily dosing may vary from those produced by the previous product and/or regimen.
The steady-state peak serum theophylline concentration is a function of the dose, the dosing interval, and the rate of theophylline absorption and clearance in the individual patient. Because of marked individual differences in the rate of theophylline clearance, the dose required to achieve a peak serum theophylline concentration in the 10-20 mcg/mL range varies fourfold among otherwise similar patients in the absence of factors known to alter theophylline clearance (e.g., 400-1600 mg/day in adults <60 years old and 10-36 mg/kg/day in children 1-9 years old). For a given population there is no single theophylline dose that will provide both safe and effective serum concentrations for all patients. Administration of the median theophylline dose required to achieve a therapeutic serum theophylline concentration in a given population may result in either sub-therapeutic or potentially toxic serum theophylline concentrations in individual patients. For example, at a dose of 900 mg/d in adults <60 years or 22 mg/kg/d in children 1-9 years, the steady-state peak serum theophylline concentration will be <10 mcg/mL in about 30% of patients, 10-20 mcg/mL in about 50% and 20-30 mcg/mL in about 20% of patients. The dose of theophylline must be individualized on the basis of peak serum theophylline concentration measurements in order to achieve a dose that will provide maximum potential benefit with minimal risk of adverse effects.
Transient caffeine-like adverse effects and excessive serum concentrations in slow metabolizers can be avoided in most patients by starting with a sufficiently low dose and slowly increasing the dose, if judged to be clinically indicated, in small increments (See Table V ). Dose increases should only be made if the previous dosage is well tolerated and at intervals of no less than 3 days to allow serum theophylline concentrations to reach the new steady-state. Dosage adjustment should be guided by serum theophylline concentration measurement (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , Table VI ). Healthcare providers should instruct patients and caregivers to discontinue any dosage that causes adverse effects, to withhold the medication until these symptoms are gone and to then resume therapy at a lower, previously tolerated dosage (see WARNINGS ).
If the patient’s symptoms are well controlled, there are no apparent adverse effects, and no intervening factors that might alter dosage requirements (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ), serum theophylline concentrations should be monitored at 6 month intervals for rapidly growing children and at yearly intervals for all others. In acutely ill patients, serum theophylline concentrations should be monitored at frequent intervals, e.g., every 24 hours.
Theophylline distributes poorly into body fat, therefore, mg/kg dose should be calculated on the basis of ideal body weight.
Table V contains theophylline dosing titration schema recommended for patients in various age groups and clinical circumstances. Table VI contains recommendations for theophylline dosage adjustment based upon serum theophylline concentrations. Application of these general dosing recommendations to individual patients must take into account the unique clinical characteristics of each patient. In general, these recommendations should serve as the upper limit for dosage adjustments in order to decrease the risk of potentially serious adverse events associated with unexpected large increases in serum theophylline concentration.
Table V. Dosing initiation and titration (as anhydrous theophylline). *A. Children (12-15 years) and adults (16-60 years) without risk factors for impaired clearance. Titration Step Children <45 kg Children >45 kg and adults 1 If caffeine-like adverse effects occur, then consideration should be given to a lower dose and titrating the dose more slowly (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ). 1. Starting Dosage 12-14 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 300 mg/day admin. QD* 300-400 mg/day1 admin. QD* 2. After 3 days, if tolerated , increase dose to: 16 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 400 mg/day admin. QD* 400-600 mg/day 1 admin. QD* 3. After 3 more days, if tolerated , and if needed increase dose to: 20 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 600 mg/day admin. QD* As with all theophylline products, doses greater than 600 mg should be titrated according to blood level (see Table VI) B. Patients With Risk Factors For Impaired Clearance, The Elderly (>60 Years), And Those In Whom It Is Not Feasible To Monitor Serum Theophylline Concentrations: In children 12-15 years of age, the theophylline dose should not exceed 16 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 400 mg/day in the presence of risk factors for reduced theophylline clearance (see WARNINGS ) or if it is not feasible to monitor serum theophylline concentrations. In adolescents ≥16 years and adults, including the elderly, the theophylline dose should not exceed 400 mg/day in the presence of risk factors for reduced theophylline clearance (see WARNINGS ) or if it is not feasible to monitor serum theophylline concentrations.
*Patients with more rapid metabolism clinically identified by higher than average dose requirements, should receive a smaller dose more frequently (every 12 hours) to prevent breakthrough symptoms resulting from low trough concentrations before the next dose.TABLE VI. Dosage adjustment guided by serum theophylline concentration. ¶Dose reduction and/or serum theophylline concentration measurement is indicated whenever adverse effects are present physiologic abnormalities that can reduce theophylline clearance occur (e.g. sustained fever), or a drug that interacts with theophylline is added or discontinued (see WARNINGS ). Peak Serum Concentration Dosage Adjustment <9.9 mcg/mL If symptoms are not controlled and current dosage is tolerated, increase dose about 25%. Recheck serum concentration after three days for further dosage adjustment. 10-14.9 mcg/mL If symptoms are controlled and current dosage is tolerated, maintain dose and recheck serum concentration at 6-12 month intervals.¶ If symptoms are not controlled and current dosage is tolerated consider adding additional medication(s) to treatment regimen. 15-19.9 mcg/mL Consider 10% decrease in dose to provide greater margin of safety even if current dosage is tolerated. ¶ 20-24.9 mcg/mL Decrease dose by 25% even if no adverse effects are present. Recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment. 25-30 mcg/mL Skip next dose and decrease subsequent doses at least 25% even if no adverse effects are present. Recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment. If symptomatic, consider whether overdose treatment is indicated (see recommendations for chronic overdosage). >30 mcg/mL Treat overdose as indicated (see recommendations for chronic overdosage). If theophylline is subsequently resumed, decrease dose by at least 50% and recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment.
Monitoring of blood levels has increased the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests). Dosage should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patients. A low initial daily dosage with gradual increase is advised. As soon as adequate control is achieved, the dosage may be reduced very gradually to the minimum effective level. The Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules may be opened and the beads sprinkled over food, such as a teaspoon of applesauce or other similar food products if this method of administration is preferred. Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules or their contents should not be crushed or chewed. Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules can be taken with or without meals.
Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules are an extended-release formulation for twice a day administration. When converting patients from immediate release carbamazepine to Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules, the same total daily mg dose of carbamazepine should be administered.
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Monitoring of blood levels has increased the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests). Dosage should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patients. A low initial daily dosage with gradual increase is advised. As soon as adequate control is achieved, the dosage may be reduced very gradually to the minimum effective level. Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules may be taken with or without food. Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules may be swallowed whole or may be opened and all the beads sprinkled on a teaspoon of soft food such as applesauce. Make sure all of the food and medicine mixture is swallowed. Do not crush or chew Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules or the sprinkled beads.
Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules is an extended-release formulation for twice a day administration. When converting patients from immediate release carbamazepine to Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules extended-release capsules, the same total daily mg dose of carbamazepine should be administered. Following conversion to Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules, patients should be closely monitored for seizure control. Depending on the therapeutic response after conversion, the total daily dose may need to be adjusted within the recommended dosing instructions.
Epilepsy (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE)
Adults and children over 12 years of age. Initial: 200 mg twice daily. Increase at weekly intervals by adding up to 200 mg/day until the optimal response is obtained. Dosage generally should not exceed 1000 mg per day in children 12-15 years of age, and 1200 mg daily in patients above 15 years of age. Doses up to 1600 mg daily have been used in adults. Maintenance: Adjust dosage to the minimum effective level, usually 800-1200 mg daily.
Children under 12 years of age: Children taking total daily dosages of immediate-release carbamazepine of 400 mg or greater may be converted to the same total daily dosage of Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules extended-release capsules, using a twice daily regimen. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 35 mg/kg. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the therapeutic range. No recommendation regarding the safety of Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules for use at doses above 35 mg/kg/24 hours can be made.
Combination Therapy: Carbamazepine Extended-Release Capsules may be used alone or with other anticonvulsants. When added to existing anticonvulsant therapy, the drug should be added gradually while the other anticonvulsants are maintained or gradually decreased, except phenytoin, which may have to be increased (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions, and Pregnancy Category D).
Trigeminal Neuralgia (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE)
Initial: On the first day, start with one 200 mg capsule. This daily dose may be increased by up to 200 mg/day every 12 hours only as needed to achieve freedom from pain. Do not exceed 1200 mg daily.
Maintenance: Control of pain can be maintained in most patients with 400-800 mg daily. However, some patients may be maintained on as little as 200 mg daily, while others may require as much as 1200 mg daily. At least once every 3 months throughout the treatment period, attempts should be made to reduce the dose to the minimum effective level or even to discontinue the drug.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Piroxicam Capsules, USP and other treatment options before deciding to use Piroxicam Capsules, USP. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with Piroxicam Capsules, USP, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs.
For the relief of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, the recommended dose is 20 mg given orally once per day. If desired, the daily dose may be divided. Because of the long half-life of Piroxicam Capsules, USP, steady-state blood levels are not reached for 7–12 days. Therefore, although the therapeutic effects of Piroxicam Capsules, USP are evident early in treatment, there is a progressive increase in response over several weeks and the effect of therapy should not be assessed for two weeks.
There is no fixed dosage regimen for the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes with Metformin hydrochloride extended release tablets or any other pharmacologic agent. Dosage of Metformin hydrochloride extended release tablets must be individualized on the basis of both effectiveness and tolerance, while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily doses. The maximum daily dose of metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets in adults is 2000 mg.
Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets should generally be given once daily with the evening meal. Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be started at a low dose, with gradual dose escalation, both to reduce gastrointestinal side effects and to permit identification of the minimum dose required for adequate glycemic control of the patient.
During treatment initiation and dose titration (see Recommended Dosing Schedule), fasting plasma glucose should be used to determine the therapeutic response to Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and identify the minimum effective dose for the patient. Thereafter, glycosylated hemoglobin should be measured at intervals of approximately 3 months. The therapeutic goal should be to decrease both fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels to normal or near normal by using the lowest effective dose of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets either when used as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea or insulin.
Monitoring of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin will also permit detection of primary failure, i.e., inadequate lowering of blood glucose at the maximum recommended dose of medication, and secondary failure, i.e., loss of an adequate blood glucose lowering response after an initial period of effectiveness.
Short-term administration of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be sufficient during periods of transient loss of control in patients usually well-controlled on diet alone.
Metformin hydrochloride extended release tablets must be swallowed whole and never crushed or chewed. Occasionally, the inactive ingredients of Metformin hydrochloride extended release tablets will be eliminated in the feces as a soft, hydrated mass. (See Patient Information printed below.)
Recommended Dosing Schedule
In general, clinically significant responses are not seen at doses below 1500 mg per day. However, a lower recommended starting dose and gradually increased dosage is advised to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms.
The usual starting dose of Metformin hydrochloride extended- release tablets is 500 mg once daily with the evening meal. Dosage increases should be made in increments of 500 mg weekly, up to a maximum of 2000 mg once daily with the evening meal. If glycemic control is not achieved on Metformin hydrochloride extended- release tablets 2000 mg once daily, a trial of Metformin hydrochloride extended- release tablets 1000 mg twice daily should be considered. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies.)
Safety and effectiveness of Metformin hydrochloride extended release tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.
Transfer From Other Antidiabetic Therapy
When transferring patients from standard oral hypoglycemic agents other than chlorpropamide to Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets no transition period generally is necessary. When transferring patients from chlorpropamide, care should be exercised during the first 2 weeks because of the prolonged retention of chlorpropamide in the body, leading to overlapping drug effects and possible hypoglycemia.
Concomitant Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and Oral Sulfonylurea Therapy in Adult Patients
If patients have not responded to four weeks of the maximum dose of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets monotherapy, consideration should be given to gradual addition of an oral sulfonylurea while continuing Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets at the maximum dose, even if prior primary or secondary failure to a sulfonylurea has occurred. Clinical and pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction data are currently available only for metformin plus glyburide (glibenclamide).
With concomitant Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and sulfonylurea therapy, the desired control of blood glucose may be obtained by adjusting the dose of each drug.With concomitant Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and sulfonylurea therapy, the risk of hypoglycemia associated with sulfonylurea therapy continues and may be increased. Appropriate precautions should be taken. (See Package Insert of the respective sulfonylurea.)
If patients have not satisfactorily responded to one to three months of concomitant therapy with the maximum dose of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and the maximum dose of an oral sulfonylurea, consider therapeutic alternatives including switching to insulin with or without Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets.
Concomitant Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets, USP and Insulin Therapy in Adult Patients
The current insulin dose should be continued upon initiation of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets therapy. Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets therapy should be initiated at 500 mg once daily in patients on insulin therapy. For patients not responding adequately, the dose of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be increased by 500 mg after approximately 1 week and by 500 mg every week thereafter until adequate glycemic control is achieved. The maximum recommended daily dose is 2000 mg for Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets. It is recommended that the insulin dose be decreased by 10% to 25% when fasting plasma glucose concentrations decrease to less than 120 mg/dL in patients receiving concomitant insulin and Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Further adjustment should be individualized based on glucose-lowering response.
Specific Patient Populations
Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not recommended for use in pregnancy or in pediatric patients (below the age of 17 years).
The initial and maintenance dosing of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be conservative in patients with advanced age, due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population. Any dosage adjustment should be based on a careful assessment of renal function. Generally, elderly, debilitated, and malnourished patients should not be titrated to the maximum dose of Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets.
Monitoring of renal function is necessary to aid in prevention of lactic acidosis, particularly in the elderly. (See WARNINGS.)
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Active Duodenal Ulcer: The recommended adult oral dosage for duodenal ulcer is 1 g four times a day on an empty stomach.
Antacids may be prescribed as needed for relief of pain but should not be taken within one-half hour before or after sucralfate.
While healing with sucralfate may occur during the first week or two, treatment should be continued for 4 to 8 weeks unless healing has been demonstrated by x-ray or endoscopic examination.
Maintenance Therapy: The recommended adult oral dosage is 1 g twice a day.
Elderly: In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. (See PRECAUTIONS Geriatric Use)
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Stool Softener Extra Strength
The recommended initial dose of Calcium Acetate Capsules for the adult dialysis patient is 2 capsules with each meal. Increase the dose gradually to lower serum phosphorus levels to the target range, as long as hypercalcemia does not develop. Most patients require 3-4 capsules with each meal.
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