Par Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
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General Dosing Considerations:
It is particularly important to administer bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) in a manner most likely to minimize the risk of seizure (see WARNINGS). Gradual escalation in dosage is also important if agitation, motor restlessness, and insomnia, often seen during the initial days of treatment, are to be minimized. If necessary, these effects may be managed by temporary reduction of dose or the short-term administration of an intermediate to long-acting sedative hypnotic. A sedative hypnotic usually is not required beyond the first week of treatment. Insomnia may also be minimized by avoiding bedtime doses. If distressing, untoward effects supervene, dose escalation should be stopped. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) should be swallowed whole and not crushed, divided, chewed, as this may lead to an increased risk of adverse effects including seizures.
The usual adult target dose for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) is 300 mg/day, given as 150 mg twice daily. Dosing with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) should begin at 150 mg/day given as a single daily dose in the morning. If the 150-mg initial dose is adequately tolerated, an increase to the 300-mg/day target dose, given as 150 mg twice daily, may be made as early as day 4 of dosing. There should be an interval of at least 8 hours between successive doses.
Increasing the Dosage Above 300 mg/day:
As with other antidepressants, the full antidepressant effect of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) may not be evident until 4 weeks of treatment or longer. An increase in dosage to the maximum of 400 mg/day, given as 200 mg twice daily, may be considered for patients in whom no clinical improvement is noted after several weeks of treatment at 300 mg/day.
It is generally agreed that acute episodes of depression require several months or longer of sustained pharmacological therapy beyond response to the acute episode. In a study in which patients with major depressive disorder, recurrent type, who had responded during 8 weeks of acute treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) were assigned randomly to placebo or to the same dose of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) (150 mg twice daily) during 44 weeks of maintenance treatment as they had received during the acute stabilization phase, longer-term efficacy was demonstrated (see CLINICAL TRIALS under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Based on these limited data, it is unknown whether or not the dose of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) needed for maintenance treatment is identical to the dose needed to achieve an initial response. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment and the appropriate dose for such treatment.
Dosage Adjustment for Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function:
Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) should be used with extreme caution in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis. The dose should not exceed 100 mg every day or 150 mg every other day in these patients. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment (including mild-to-moderate hepatic cirrhosis) and a reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered in patients with mild-tomoderate hepatic cirrhosis (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS).
Dosage Adjustment for Patients with Impaired Renal Function:
Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment and a reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and PRECAUTIONS).
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There is no fixed dosage regimen for the management of diabetes mellitus with glipizide extended-release tablets or any other hypoglycemic agent. Glycemic control should be monitored with hemoglobin A1C and/or blood-glucose levels to determine the minimum effective dose for the patient; to detect primary failure, i.e., inadequate lowering of blood glucose at the maximum recommended dose of medication; and to detect secondary failure, i.e., loss of an adequate blood-glucose-lowering response after an initial period of effectiveness. Home blood-glucose monitoring may also provide useful information to the patient and physician. Short-term administration of glipizide extended-release tablets may be sufficient during periods of transient loss of control in patients usually controlled on diet.
In general, glipizide extended-release tablets should be given with breakfast.
Recommended Dosing: The usual starting dose of glipizide extended-release tablets as initial therapy is 5 mg per day, given with breakfast. Those patients who may be more sensitive to hypoglycemic drugs may be started at a lower dose.
Dosage adjustment should be based on laboratory measures of glycemic control. While fasting blood-glucose levels generally reach steady-state following initiation or change in glipizide extended-release tablet dosage, a single fasting glucose determination may not accurately reflect the response to therapy. In most cases, hemoglobin A1C level measured at three month intervals is the preferred means of monitoring response to therapy.
Hemoglobin A1C should be measured as glipizide extended-release tablet therapy is initiated and repeated approximately three months later. If the result of this test suggests that glycemic control over the preceding three months was inadequate, the glipizide extended-release tablet dose may be increased. Subsequent dosage adjustments should be made on the basis of hemoglobin A1C levels measured at three month intervals. If no improvement is seen after three months of therapy with a higher dose, the previous dose should be resumed. Decisions which utilize fasting blood glucose to adjust glipizide extended-release tablet therapy should be based on at least two or more similar, consecutive values obtained seven days or more after the previous dose adjustment.
Most patients will be controlled with 5 mg to 10 mg taken once daily. However, some patients may require up to the maximum recommended daily dose of 20 mg. While the glycemic control of selected patients may improve with doses which exceed 10 mg, clinical studies conducted to date have not demonstrated an additional group average reduction of hemoglobin A1C beyond what was achieved with the 10 mg dose.
Based on the results of a randomized crossover study, patients receiving immediate release glipizide may be switched safely to glipizide extended-release tablets once-a-day at the nearest equivalent total daily dose. Patients receiving immediate release glipizide also may be titrated to the appropriate dose of glipizide extended-release tablets starting with 5 mg once daily. The decision to switch to the nearest equivalent dose or to titrate should be based on clinical judgment.
In elderly patients, debilitated or malnourished patients, and patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, the initial and maintenance dosing should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions (see PRECAUTIONS section).
Combination Use: When adding other blood-glucose-lowering agents to glipizide extended-release tablets for combination therapy, the agent should be initiated at the lowest recommended dose, and patients should be observed carefully for hypoglycemia. Refer to the product information supplied with the oral agent for additional information.
When adding glipizide extended-release tablets to other blood-glucose-lowering agents, glipizide extended-release tablets can be initiated at 5 mg. Those patients who may be more sensitive to hypoglycemic drugs may be started at a lower dose. Titration should be based on clinical judgment.
When colesevelam is coadministered with glipizide ER, maximum plasma concentration and total exposure to glipizide is reduced. Therefore, glipizide ER should be administered at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam.
Patients Receiving Insulin: As with other sulfonylurea-class hypoglycemics, many patients with stable type 2 diabetes receiving insulin may be transferred safely to treatment with glipizide extended-release tablets. When transferring patients from insulin to glipizide extended-release tablets, the following general guidelines should be considered:
For patients whose daily insulin requirement is 20 units or less, insulin may be discontinued and glipizide extended-release tablet therapy may begin at usual dosages. Several days should elapse between titration steps.
For patients whose daily insulin requirement is greater than 20 units, the insulin dose should be reduced by 50% and glipizide extended-release tablet therapy may begin at usual dosages. Subsequent reductions in insulin dosage should depend on individual patient response. Several days should elapse between titration steps.
During the insulin withdrawal period, the patient should test urine samples for sugar and ketone bodies at least three times daily. Patients should be instructed to contact the prescriber immediately if these tests are abnormal. In some cases, especially when the patient has been receiving greater than 40 units of insulin daily, it may be advisable to consider hospitalization during the transition period.
Patients Receiving Other Oral Hypoglycemic Agents: As with other sulfonylurea-class hypoglycemics, no transition period is necessary when transferring patients to glipizide extended-release tablets. Patients should be observed carefully (1 to 2 weeks) for hypoglycemia when being transferred from longer half-life sulfonylureas (e.g., chlorpropamide) to glipizide extended-release tablets due to potential overlapping of drug effect.
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