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Apotex Inc. Drugs
Factors to be considered in determining the dose are age, body weight, physical status, underlying pathological condition, use of other drugs, type of anesthesia to be used, and surgical procedure involved. Use in elderly, patients with hepatic or renal disease, or in labor requires extra caution (seePRECAUTIONS section andCLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Individualization of Dosage section). The following doses are for patients who do not have impaired hepatic or renal function and who are not on CNS active agents.
Use for Pain
Intravenous: The usual recommended single dose for IV administration is 1 mg repeated every 3 to 4 hours as necessary. The effective dosage range, depending on the severity of pain, is 0.5 mg to 2 mg repeated every 3 to 4 hours.
Intramuscular: The usual recommended single dose for IM administration is 2 mg in patients who will be able to remain recumbent, in the event drowsiness or dizziness occurs. This may be repeated every 3 to 4 hours, as necessary. The effective dosage range depending on the severity of pain is 1 mg to 4 mg repeated every 3 to 4 hours. There are insufficient clinical data to recommend single doses above 4 mg.
Use as Preoperative/Preanesthetic Medication
The preoperative medication dosage of butorphanol tartrate injection should be individualized (seeCLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Individualization of Dosage section). The usual adult dose is 2 mg IM, administered 60 to 90 minutes before surgery. This is approximately equivalent in sedative effect to 10 mg morphine or 80 mg meperidine.
Use in Balanced Anesthesia
The usual dose of butorphanol tartrate injection is 2 mg IV shortly before induction and/or 0.5 mg to 1 mg IV in increments during anesthesia. The increment may be higher, up to 0.06 mg/kg (4 mg/70 kg), depending on previous sedative, analgesic, and hypnotic drugs administered. The total dose of butorphanol tartrate will vary; however, patients seldom require less than 4 mg or more than 12.5 mg (approximately 0.06 mg/kg to 0.18 mg/kg).
In patients at full term in early labor a 1 mg to 2 mg dose of butorphanol tartrate IV or IM may be administered and repeated after 4 hours. Alternative analgesia should be used for pain associated with delivery or if delivery is expected to occur within 4 hours.
If concomitant use of butorphanol tartrate with drugs that may potentiate its effects is deemed necessary (seePRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions section), the lowest effective dose should be employed.
Safety and Handling
Butorphanol tartrate injection is supplied in sealed delivery systems that have a low risk of accidental exposure to health care workers. Ordinary care should be taken to avoid aerosol generation while preparing a syringe for use. Following skin contact, rinsing with cool water is recommended.
The disposal of Schedule IV controlled substances must be consistent with State and Federal Regulations.
Amiodarone shows considerable interindividual variation in response. Thus, although a starting dose adequate to suppress life-threatening arrhythmias is needed, close monitoring with adjustment of dose as needed is essential. The recommended starting dose of intravenous amiodarone is about 1000 mg over the first 24 hours of therapy, delivered by the following infusion regimen:
After the first 24 hours, the maintenance infusion rate of 0.5 mg/min (720 mg/24 hours) should be continued utilizing a concentration of 1 to 6 mg/mL (amiodarone HCl injection concentrations greater than 2 mg/mL should be administered via a central venous catheter). In the event of breakthrough episodes of VF or hemodynamically unstable VT, 150 mg supplemental infusions of amiodarone HCl injection mixed in 100 mL of D5W may be administered. Such infusions should be administered over 10 minutes to minimize the potential for hypotension. The rate of the maintenance infusion may be increased to achieve effective arrhythmia suppression.
The first 24-hour dose may be individualized for each patient; however, in controlled clinical trials, mean daily doses above 2100 mg were associated with an increased risk of hypotension. The initial infusion rate should not exceed 30 mg/min.
Based on the experience from clinical studies of amiodarone injection, a maintenance infusion of up to 0.5 mg/min can be cautiously continued for 2 to 3 weeks regardless of the patient’s age, renal function, or left ventricular function. There has been limited experience in patients receiving amiodarone injection for longer than 3 weeks.
The surface properties of solutions containing injectable amiodarone are altered such that the drop size may be reduced. This reduction may lead to underdosage of the patient by up to 30% if drop counter infusion sets are used. Amiodarone injection must be delivered by a volumetric infusion pump.
Amiodarone injection should, whenever possible, be administered through a central venous catheter dedicated to that purpose. An in-line filter should be used during administration.
Amiodarone injection loading infusions at much higher concentrations and rates of infusion much faster than recommended have resulted in hepatocellular necrosis and acute renal failure, leading to death (see PRECAUTIONS, Liver Enzymes Elevations).
Amiodarone HCl injection concentrations greater than 3 mg/mL in D5W have been associated with a high incidence of peripheral vein phlebitis; however, concentrations of 2.5 mg/mL or less appear to be less irritating. Therefore, for infusions longer than 1 hour, amiodarone HCl injection concentrations should not exceed 2 mg/mL unless a central venous catheter is used (See ADVERSE REACTIONS Postmarketing Reports).
Amiodarone HCl injection infusions exceeding 2 hours must be administered in glass or polyolefin bottles containing D5W. Use of evacuated glass containers for admixing amiodarone HCl injection is not recommended as incompatibility with a buffer in the container may cause precipitation.
It is well known that amiodarone adsorbs to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing and the clinical trial dose administration schedule was designed to account for this adsorption. All of the clinical trials were conducted using PVC tubing and its use is therefore recommended. The concentrations and rates of infusion provided in DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION reflect doses identified in these studies. Intravenous amiodarone has been found to leach out plasticizers, including DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] from intravenous tubing (including PVC tubing). The degree of leaching increases when infusing intravenous amiodarone at higher concentrations and lower flow rates than provided in DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. In addition, polysorbate 80, a component of intravenous amiodarone, is also known to leach DEHP from PVC (see DESCRIPTION). Therefore, it is important that the recommendations in DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION be followed closely.
Intravenous amiodarone does not need to be protected from light during administration.
Admixture Incompatibility Amiodarone HCI injection in D5W is incompatible with the drugs shown below.
Intravenous to Oral Transition Patients whose arrhythmias have been suppressed by intravenous amiodarone may be switched to oral amiodarone. The optimal dose for changing from intravenous to oral administration of amiodarone will depend on the dose of intravenous amiodarone already administered, as well as the bioavailability of oral amiodarone. When changing to oral amiodarone therapy, clinical monitoring is recommended, particularly for elderly patients.
Since there are some differences between the safety and efficacy profiles of the intravenous and oral formulations, the prescriber is advised to review the package insert for oral amiodarone when switching from intravenous to oral amiodarone therapy.
Since grapefruit juice is known to inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of oral amiodarone in the intestinal mucosa, resulting in increased plasma levels of amiodarone, grapefruit juice should not be taken during treatment with oral amiodarone (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
The following table provides suggested doses of oral amiodarone to be initiated after varying durations of intravenous amiodarone administration. These recommendations are made on the basis of a comparable total body amount of amiodarone delivered by the intravenous and oral routes, based on 50% bioavailability of oral amiodarone.
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