Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
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Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drugs
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Solution
Take care when prescribing and administering Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP to avoid dosing errors due to confusion between mg and mL, which could result in accidental overdose and death. Take care to ensure the proper dose is communicated and dispensed. When writing prescriptions, include both the total dose in mg and the total dose in volume. Always use the enclosed calibrated oral syringe when administering Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP to ensure the dose is measured and administered accurately.
Selection of patients for treatment with oxycodone hydrochloride should be governed by the same principles that apply to the use of similar opioid analgesics. Individualize treatment in every case, using non-opioid analgesics, opioids on an as needed basis and/or combination products, and chronic opioid therapy in a progressive plan of pain management such as outlined by the World Health Organization, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the American Pain Society.
2.1 Individualization of Dosage
As with any opioid drug product, adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's prior analgesic treatment experience. In the selection of the initial dose of oxycodone hydrochloride, give attention to the following:the total daily dose, potency and specific characteristics of the opioid the patient has been taking previously; the reliability of the relative potency estimate used to calculate the equivalent oxycodone hydrochloride dose needed; the patient's degree of opioid tolerance; the general condition and medical status of the patient; concurrent medications; the type and severity of the patient's pain; risk factors for abuse, addiction or diversion, including a prior history of abuse, addiction or diversion.
The following dosing recommendations, therefore, can only be considered suggested approaches to what is actually a series of clinical decisions over time in the management of the pain of each individual patient.
Continual re-evaluation of the patient receiving oxycodone hydrochloride is important, with special attention to the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of side effects associated with therapy. During chronic therapy, especially for non-cancer-related pain, periodically re-assess the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics.
During periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration, frequent contact is recommended between physician, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family.
2.2 Initiation of Therapy
Start patients who have not been receiving opioid analgesics on Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP in a dosing range of 5 to 15 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain.
Titrate the dose based upon the individual patient's response to their initial dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution. Adjust the dose to an acceptable level of analgesia taking into account the improvement in pain intensity and the tolerability of the oxycodone by the patient.
2.3 Conversion to Oral Oxycodone Oral Solution
There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride. It is better to underestimate a patient's 24-hour oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride dose and make available rescue medication than to overestimate the 24-hour oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride dose and manage an adverse experience of overdose.
2.3.1 Conversion from Fixed-Ratio Opioid/Acetaminophen, Opioid/Aspirin, or Opioid/Nonsteroidal Combination Drugs
When converting patients from fixed ratio opioid/non-opioid drug regimens it may be necessary to titrate the dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP in response to the level of analgesia and adverse effects.
2.3.2 Conversion from Non-Oxycodone Opioids
In converting patients from other opioids to oxycodone hydrochloride, close observation and adjustment of dosage based upon the patient's response to oxycodone hydrochloride is imperative. Physicians and other healthcare professionals are advised to refer to published relative potency information, keeping in mind that conversion ratios are only approximate.
2.4 Conversion from Oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride to Controlled-Release Oral Oxycodone
The relative bioavailability of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP compared to controlled-release oxycodone is unknown, so conversion to controlled-release tablets must be accompanied by close observation for signs of excessive sedation.
2.5 Maintenance of Therapy
Continual re-evaluation of the patient receiving Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is important, with special attention to the maintenance of pain management and the relative incidence of side effects associated with therapy. If the level of pain increases, effort should be made to identify the source of increased pain, while adjusting the dose as described above to decrease the level of pain.
During chronic therapy, especially for non-cancer-related pain (or pain associated with other terminal illnesses), the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics should be re-assessed as appropriate.
2.6 Cessation of Therapy
When a patient no longer requires therapy with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP for the treatment of their pain, it is important that therapy be gradually discontinued over time to prevent the development of an opioid abstinence syndrome (narcotic withdrawal). In general, therapy can be decreased by 25% to 50% per day with careful monitoring for signs and symptoms of withdrawal [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3) section for description of the signs and symptoms of withdrawal]. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, the dose should be raised to the previous level and titrated down more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. It is not known at what dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution that treatment may be discontinued without risk of the opioid abstinence syndrome.
2.7 Dosage in patients with Hepatic or Renal Impairment
Follow a conservative approach to dose initiation in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. Monitor patients closely and adjust dose based on clinical response.
Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride Syrup
For symptomatic relief of anxiety and tension associated with psychoneurosis and as an adjunct in organic disease states in which anxiety is manifested: in adults, 50 to 100 mg q.i.d.; children under 6 years, 50 mg daily in divided doses and over 6 years, 50 to 100 mg daily in divided doses.
For use in the management of pruritus due to allergic conditions such as chronic urticaria and atopic and contact dermatoses, and in histamine-mediated pruritus: in adults, 25 mg t.i.d. or q.i.d.; children under 6 years, 50 mg daily in divided doses and over 6 years, 50 to 100 mg daily in divided doses.
As a sedative when used as a premedication and following general anesthesia: 50 to 100 mg in adults, and 0.6 mg/kg in children.
When treatment is initiated by the intramuscular route of administration, subsequent doses may be administered orally.
As with all medications, the dosage should be adjusted according to the patient's response to therapy.
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate Solution
Optimal patient response to Lithium Oral Solution usually can be established and maintained with 10 mL (2 full teaspoons (16 mEq of lithium)) t.i.d. Such doses will normally produce an effective serum lithium level ranging between 1 and 1.5 mEq/L. Dosage must be individualized according to serum levels and clinical response. Regular monitoring of the patient's clinical state and of serum lithium levels is necessary. Serum levels should be determined twice per week during the acute phase, and until the serum level and patient's clinical condition of the patient have been stabilized.
The desirable serum lithium levels are 0.6 to 1.2 mEq/L. Dosage will vary from one individual to another, but usually 5 mL (1 full teaspoon) (8 mEq of Lithium) of Lithium Oral Solution t.i.d. or q.i.d. will maintain this level. Serum lithium levels in uncomplicated cases receiving maintenance therapy during remission should be monitored at least every two months. Patients abnormally sensitive to lithium may exhibit toxic signs at serum levels of 1.0 to 1.5 mEq/L.
Patients abnormally sensitive to lithium may exhibit toxic signs at serum levels of 1.0 to 1.5 mEq/L.
Elderly patients often respond to reduced dosage, and may exhibit signs of toxicity at serum levels ordinarily tolerated by other patients.
Blood samples for serum lithium determination should be drawn immediately prior to the next dose when lithium concentrations are relatively stable (i.e., 8–12 hours after the previous dose). Total reliance must not be placed on serum levels alone. Accurate patient evaluation requires both clinical and laboratory analysis.
Serum concentrations should be monitored and care should be taken when switching a patient from the sodium salt to the free acid form. The free acid form of phenytoin is used in Phenytoin Oral Suspension. Because there is approximately an 8% increase in drug content with the free acid form over that of the sodium salt, dosage adjustments and serum level monitoring may be necessary when switching from a product formulated with the free acid to a product formulated with the sodium salt and vice versa.
Dosage should be individualized to provide maximum benefit. In some cases serum blood level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments––the clinically effective serum level is usually 10–20 mcg/mL. With recommended dosage, a period of seven to ten days may be required to achieve steady-state blood levels with phenytoin and changes in dosage (increase or decrease) should not be carried out at intervals shorter than seven to ten days.
Patients who have received no previous treatment may be started on one teaspoonful (5 mL) of Phenytoin Oral Suspension three times daily, and the dose is then adjusted to suit individual requirements. An increase to five teaspoonfuls daily may be made, if necessary.
Dosing in Special Populations
Patients with Renal or Hepatic Disease
Due to an increased fraction of unbound phenytoin in patients with renal or hepatic disease, or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the interpretation of total phenytoin plasma concentrations should be made with caution. Unbound phenytoin concentrations may be more useful in these patient populations.
Phenytoin clearance is decreased slightly in elderly patients and lower or less frequent dosing may be required.
Initially, 5 mg/kg/day in two or three equally divided doses, with subsequent dosage individualized to a maximum of 300 mg daily. A recommended daily maintenance dosage is usually 4 to 8 mg/kg. Children over 6 years and adolescents may require the minimum adult dose (300 mg/day).
INFANTS: 2 mL (200,000 units) four times daily (in infants and young children, use dropper to place one-half of dose in each side of mouth and avoid feeding for 5 to 10 minutes).NOTE: Limited clinical studies in premature and low birth weight infants indicate that 1 mL four times daily is effective.
CHILDREN AND ADULTS: 4–6 mL (400,000 to 600,000 units) four times daily (one-half of dose in each side of mouth). The preparation should be retained in the mouth as long as possible before swallowing.
Continue treatment for at least 48 hours after perioral symptoms have disappeared and cultures demonstrate eradication of Candida albicans.
Apply a thin layer of Lindane Lotion over all skin from the neck down. One ounce is sufficient for an average adult. Do not prescribe more than 2 ounces for larger adults. Apply only once. Wash off in 8 to 12 hours. Do not retreat. (See boxed WARNINGS.)
Patients should be provided specific information on use of product. (See PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients and the Medication Guide.) Patients should be instructed on proper use of Lindane Lotion, especially the amount to apply, how long to leave on and the need to avoid retreatment. Patients should be informed that itching occurs after the successful killing of scabies (mites) and continued itching is not necessarily an indication for retreatment with Lindane Lotion.
A Lindane Lotion Medication Guide must be given to the patient each time Lindane Lotion is dispensed, as required by law. The Lindane Lotion Medication Guide is an important part of the risk management program for the patient.
Cyclosporine Oral Solution, USP has decreased bioavailability in comparison to Neoral®1 soft gelatin capsules (cyclosporine capsules, USP) MODIFIED and Neoral®1 oral solution (cyclosporine oral solution, USP) MODIFIED. Cyclosporine and Neoral®1 (cyclosporine [MODIFIED]) are not bioequivalent and cannot be used interchangeably without physician supervision.
The initial oral dose of cyclosporine should be given 4 to 12 hours prior to transplantation as a single dose of 15 mg/kg. Although a daily single dose of 14 to 18 mg/kg was used in most clinical trials, few centers continue to use the highest dose, most favoring the lower end of the scale. There is a trend towards use of even lower initial doses for renal transplantation in the ranges of 10 to 14 mg/kg/day. The initial single daily dose is continued postoperatively for 1 to 2 weeks and then tapered by 5% per week to a maintenance dose of 5 to 10 mg/kg/day. Some centers have successfully tapered the maintenance dose to as low as 3 mg/kg/day in selected renal transplant patients without an apparent rise in rejection rate.
(See Blood Level Monitoring below).
In pediatric usage, the same dose and dosing regimen may be used as in adults although in several studies, children have required and tolerated higher doses than those used in adults.
Adjunct therapy with adrenal corticosteroids is recommended. Different tapering dosage schedules of prednisone appear to achieve similar results. A dosage schedule based on the patient's weight started with 2 mg/kg/day for the first 4 days tapered to 1 mg/kg/day by 1 week, 0.6 mg/kg/day by 2 weeks, 0.3 mg/kg/day by 1 month, and 0.15 mg/kg/day by 2 months and thereafter as a maintenance dose. Another center started with an initial dose of 200 mg tapered by 40 mg/day until reaching 20 mg/day. After 2 months at this dose, a further reduction to 10 mg/day was made. Adjustments in dosage of prednisone must be made according to the clinical situation.
To make cyclosporine oral solution, USP more palatable, the oral solution may be diluted with milk, chocolate milk, or orange juice preferably at room temperature. Patients should avoid switching diluents frequently. Cyclosporine oral solution should be administered on a consistent schedule with regard to time of day and relation to meals.
Take the prescribed amount of cyclosporine from the container using the dosage syringe supplied after removal of the protective cover, and transfer the solution to a glass of milk, chocolate milk, or orange juice. Stir well and drink at once. Do not allow to stand before drinking. It is best to use a glass container and rinse it with more diluent to ensure that the total dose is taken. After use, replace the dosage syringe in the protective cover. Do not rinse the dosage syringe with water or other cleaning agents either before or after use. If the dosage syringe requires cleaning, it must be completely dry before resuming use. Introduction of water into the product by any means will cause variation in dose.
Blood Level Monitoring
Several study centers have found blood level monitoring of cyclosporine useful in patient management. While no fixed relationships have yet been established, in one series of 375 consecutive cadaveric renal transplant recipients, dosage was adjusted to achieve specific whole blood 24-hour trough levels of 100–200 ng/mL as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Of major importance to blood level analysis is the type of assay used. The above levels are specific to the parent cyclosporine molecule and correlate directly to the new monoclonal specific radioimmunoassays (mRIA-sp). Nonspecific assays are also available which detect the parent compound molecule and various of its metabolites. Older studies often cited levels using a nonspecific assay which were roughly twice those of specific assays. Assay results are not interchangeable and their use should be guided by their approved labeling. If plasma specimens are employed, levels will vary with the temperature at the time of separation from whole blood. Plasma levels may range from 1/2–1/5 of whole blood levels. Refer to individual assay labeling for complete instructions. In addition, Transplantation Proceedings (June 1990) contains position papers and a broad consensus generated at the Cyclosporine-Therapeutic Drug Monitoring conference that year. Blood level monitoring is not a replacement for renal function monitoring or tissue biopsies.
Therapy should be individualized according to patient response to gain maximal therapeutic response and to determine the minimal dose needed to maintain that response.
The usual initial dose of furosemide is 20 to 80 mg given as a single dose. Ordinarily a prompt diuresis ensues. If needed, the same dose can be administered 6 to 8 hours later or the dose may be increased. The dose may be raised by 20 or 40 mg and given not sooner than 6 to 8 hours after the previous dose until the desired diuretic effect has been obtained. The individually determined single dose should then be given once or twice daily (e.g., at 8 am and 2 pm). The dose of furosemide may be carefully titrated up to 600 mg/day in patients with clinically severe edematous states.
Edema may be most efficiently and safely mobilized by giving furosemide on 2 to 4 consecutive days each week.
When doses exceeding 80 mg/day are given for prolonged periods, careful clinical observation and laboratory monitoring are particularly advisable. (See PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests.)
In general, dose selection for the elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).
The usual initial dose of oral furosemide in pediatric patients is 2 mg/kg body weight, given as a single dose. If the diuretic response is not satisfactory after the initial dose, dosage may be increased by 1 or 2 mg/kg no sooner than 6 to 8 hours after the previous dose. Doses greater than 6 mg/kg body weight are not recommended. For maintenance therapy in pediatric patients, the dose should be adjusted to the minimum effective level.
Therapy should be individualized according to the patient's response to gain maximal therapeutic response and to determine the minimal dose needed to maintain the therapeutic response.
The usual initial dose of furosemide for hypertension is 80 mg, usually divided into 40 mg twice a day. Dosage should then be adjusted according to response. If response is not satisfactory, add other antihypertensive agents.
Changes in blood pressure must be carefully monitored when furosemide is used with other antihypertensive drugs, especially during initial therapy. To prevent excessive drop in blood pressure, the dosage of other agents should be reduced by at least 50 percent when furosemide is added to the regimen. As the blood pressure falls under the potentiating effect of furosemide, a further reduction in dosage or even discontinuation of other antihypertensive drugs may be necessary.
In general, dose selection and dose adjustment for the elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).
Most patients will require only 1 ounce of Lindane Shampoo. Based on the length and density of hair, some patients may require 2 ounces of Lindane Shampoo.
Apply shampoo directly to dry hair without adding water. Work thoroughly into the hair and allow to remain in place for 4 minutes only. Special attention should be given to the fine hairs along the neck. After 4 minutes, add small quantities of water to hair until a good lather forms. Immediately rinse all lather away. Avoid unnecessary contact of lather with other body surfaces. Do not prescribe more than 2 ounces for larger adults. Do not retreat. (See boxed WARNINGS.)
Patients should be provided specific information on use of product. (See PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients and Lindane Shampoo Medication Guide.)
A Lindane Shampoo Medication Guide must be given to the patient each time LINDANE Shampoo is dispensed as required by law. The Lindane Shampoo Medication Guide is an important part of the risk management program for the patient.
Valproic Acid Solution
Valproic Acid Oral Solution, USP is administered orally. Valproic acid is indicated as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in complex partial seizures in adults and pediatric patients down to the age of 10 years, and in simple and complex absence seizures. As the valproic acid dosage is titrated upward, concentrations of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and/or phenytoin may be affected (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions).
Complex Partial Seizures
For adults and children 10 years of age or older.
Monotherapy (Initial Therapy)
Valproic acid has not been systematically studied as initial therapy. Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made.
The probability of thrombocytopenia increases significantly at total trough valproate plasma concentrations above 110 mcg/mL in females and 135 mcg/mL in males. The benefit of improved seizure control with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions.
Conversion to Monotherapy
Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. Concomitant antiepilepsy drug (AED) dosage can ordinarily be reduced by approximately 25% every 2 weeks. This reduction may be started at initiation of valproic acid therapy, or delayed by 1 to 2 weeks if there is a concern that seizures are likely to occur with a reduction. The speed and duration of withdrawal of the concomitant AED can be highly variable, and patients should be monitored closely during this period for increased seizure frequency.
Valproic acid may be added to the patient's regimen at a dosage of 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.
In a study of adjunctive therapy for complex partial seizures in which patients were receiving either carbamazepine or phenytoin in addition to divalproex sodium tablets, no adjustment of carbamazepine or phenytoin dosage was needed (see Clinical Trials). However, since valproate may interact with these or other concurrently administered AEDs as well as other drugs (see Drug Interactions), periodic plasma concentration determinations of concomitant AEDs are recommended during the early course of therapy (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions).
Simple and Complex Absence Seizures
The recommended initial dose is 15 mg/kg/day, increasing at one week intervals by 5 to 10 mg/kg/day until seizures are controlled or side effects preclude further increases. The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.
A good correlation has not been established between daily dose, serum concentrations, and therapeutic effect. However, therapeutic valproate serum concentrations for most patients with absence seizures is considered to range from 50 to 100 mcg/mL. Some patients may be controlled with lower or higher serum concentrations (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
As the valproic acid dosage is titrated upward, blood concentrations of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin may be affected (see PRECAUTIONS).
Antiepilepsy drugs should not be abruptly discontinued in patients in whom the drug is administered to prevent major seizures because of the strong possibility of precipitating status epilepticus with attendant hypoxia and threat to life.
The following table is a guide for the initial daily dose of Valproic Acid Oral Solution, USP (15 mg/kg/day):Weight Total DailyDose (mg) Teaspoonfuls of Solution (Kg) (Lb) Dose 1 Dose 2 Dose 3 10–24.9 22–54.9 250 0 0 1 25–39.9 55–87.9 500 1 0 1 40–59.9 88–131.9 750 1 1 1 60–74.9 132–164.9 1,000 1 1 2 75–89.9 165–197.9 1,250 2 1 2
General Dosing Advice
Dosing in Elderly Patients
Due to a decrease in unbound clearance of valproate and possibly a greater sensitivity to somnolence in the elderly, the starting dose should be reduced in these patients. Dosage should be increased more slowly and with regular monitoring for fluid and nutritional intake, dehydration, somnolence, and other adverse events. Dose reductions or discontinuation of valproate should be considered in patients with decreased food or fluid intake and in patients with excessive somnolence. The ultimate therapeutic dose should be achieved on the basis of both tolerability and clinical response (see WARNINGS).
Dose-Related Adverse Events
The frequency of adverse effects (particularly elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia) may be dose-related. The probability of thrombocytopenia appears to increase significantly at total valproate concentrations of ≥ 110 mcg/mL (females) or ≥ 135 mcg/mL (males) (see PRECAUTIONS). The benefit of improved therapeutic effect with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions.
Patients who experience G.I. irritation may benefit from administration of the drug with food or by slowly building up the dose from an initial low level.
For oral administration: DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE DISEASE AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT.
The initial dosage varies from 0.75 to 9 mg a day depending on the disease being treated. In less severe diseases doses lower than 0.75 mg may suffice, while in severe diseases doses higher than 9 mg may be required. The initial dosage should be maintained or adjusted until the patient's response is satisfactory. If satisfactory clinical response does not occur after a reasonable period of time, discontinue DEXAMETHASONE ELIXIR and transfer the patient to other therapy.
After a favorable initial response, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial dosage in small amounts to the lowest dosage that maintains an adequate clinical response.
Patients should be observed closely for signs that might require dosage adjustment, including changes in clinical status resulting from remissions or exacerbations of the disease, individual drug responsiveness, and the effect of stress (e.g., surgery, infection, trauma). During stress it may be necessary to increase dosage temporarily.
If the drug is to be stopped after more than a few days of treatment, it usually should be withdrawn gradually.
The following milligram equivalents facilitate changing to DEXAMETHASONE ELIXIR from other glucocorticoids:DEXAMETHASONE ELIXIR METHYLPREDNI-SOLONE AND TRIAMCINOLONE PREDNISOLONE AND PREDNISONE HYDROCORTISONE CORTISONE 0.75 mg = 4 mg = 5 mg = 20 mg = 25 mg
Dexamethasone suppression testsTests for Cushing's syndrome.Give 1 mg of Dexamethasone orally at 11:00 p.m. Blood is drawn for plasma cortisol determination at 8:00 a.m. the following morning.For greater accuracy, give 0.5 mg of Dexamethasone orally every 6 hours for 48 hours. Twenty-four hour urine collections are made for determination of 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. Test to distinguish Cushing's syndrome due to pituitary ACTH excess from Cushing's syndrome due to other causes.Give 2 mg of Dexamethasone orally every 6 hours for 48 hours. Twenty-four hour urine collections are made for determination of 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion.
Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup
Promethazine Syrup is contraindicated for children under 2 years of age (see WARNINGS-Black Box Warning and Use in Pediatric Patients).
The average oral dose is 25 mg taken before retiring; however, 12.5 mg may be taken before meals and on retiring, if necessary. Single 25-mg doses at bedtime or 6.25 to 12.5 mg taken three times daily will usually suffice. After initiation of treatment in children or adults, dosage should be adjusted to the smallest amount adequate to relieve symptoms. The administration of promethazine HCl in 25-mg doses will control minor transfusion reactions of an allergic nature.
The average adult dose is 25 mg taken twice daily. The initial dose should be taken one-half to one hour before anticipated travel and be repeated 8 to 12 hours later, if necessary. On succeeding days of travel, it is recommended that 25 mg be given on arising and again before the evening meal. For children, Promethazine Syrup, 12.5 to 25 mg, twice daily, may be administered.
Nausea and Vomiting
Antiemetics should not be used in vomiting of unknown etiology in children and adolescents (see WARNINGS-Use in Pediatric Patients).
The average effective dose of Promethazine for the active therapy of nausea and vomiting in children or adults is 25 mg. When oral medication cannot be tolerated, the dose should be given parenterally (cf. Promethazine Injection) or by rectal suppository. 12.5- to 25-mg doses may be repeated, as necessary, at 4- to 6-hour intervals.
For nausea and vomiting in children, the usual dose is 0.5 mg per pound of body weight, and the dose should be adjusted to the age and weight of the patient and the severity of the condition being treated.
For prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting, as during surgery and the postoperative period, the average dose is 25 mg repeated at 4- to 6-hour intervals, as necessary.
This product relieves apprehension and induces a quiet sleep from which the patient can be easily aroused. Administration of 12.5 to 25 mg Promethazine by the oral route will provide sedation in children. Adults usually require 25 to 50 mg for nighttime, presurgical, or obstetrical sedation.
Pre- and Postoperative Use
Promethazine in 12.5- to 25-mg doses for children and 50-mg doses for adults the night before surgery relieves apprehension and produces a quiet sleep.
For preoperative medication, children require doses of 0.5 mg per pound of body weight in combination with an appropriately reduced dose of narcotic or barbiturate and the appropriate dose of an atropine-like drug. Usual adult dosage is 50 mg Promethazine with an appropriately reduced dose of narcotic or barbiturate and the required amount of a belladonna alkaloid.
Postoperative sedation and adjunctive use with analgesics may be obtained by the administration of 12.5 to 25 mg in children and 25- to 50-mg doses in adults.
Promethazine Syrup is contraindicated for children under 2 years of age.
Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide And Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup
Promethazine hydrochloride and dextromethorphan hydrobromide syrup is contraindicated for children under 2 years of age (see WARNINGS – Black Box Warning and Use in Pediatric Patients).
The average effective dose is given in the following table:Adults 1 teaspoonful (5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours. Children 6 years to under 12 years ½ to 1 teaspoonful (2.5 to 5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 20 mL in 24 hours. Children 2 years to under 6 years ¼ to ½ teaspoonful (1.25 to 2.5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 10 mL in 24 hours.
Triamcinolone Acetonide Lotion
Topical corticosteroids are generally applied to the affected area as a thin film from three to four times daily depending on the severity of the condition.
Occlusive dressings may be used for the management of psoriasis or recalcitrant conditions.
If an infection develops, the use of occlusive dressings should be discontinued and appropriate antimicrobial therapy instituted.
Triamcinolone Acetonide Lotion
Topical corticosteroids are generally applied to the affected area as a thin film from three to four times daily depending on the severity of the condition.
Occlusive dressings may be used for the management of psoriasis or recalcitrant conditions.
If an infection develops, the use of occlusive dressings should be discontinued and appropriate antimicrobial therapy instituted.
Oxybutynin Chloride Syrup
The usual dose is one teaspoonful (5 mg/5 mL) syrup two to three times a day. The maximum recommended dose is one teaspoonful (5 mg/5 mL) syrup four times a day.
Children over 5 years of age
The usual dose is one teaspoonful (5 mg/5 mL) two times a day. The maximum recommended dose is one teaspoonful (5 mg/5 mL) three times a day.
Dexchlorpheniramine Maleate Solution
DOSAGE SHOULD BE INDIVIDUALIZED ACCORDING TO THE NEEDS AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT.
Adults and Children 12 years of age and older: 2 mg (1 teaspoonful)Children 6 to 11 years: 1 mg (1/2 teaspoonful)Children 2 to 5 years: 0.5 mg (1/4 teaspoonful)
Doses are generally given every 4 to 6 hours.
Erythromycin Topical Solution, USP 2% should be applied to the affected area 2 times a day (morning and evening) after the skin is thoroughly washed with warm water and soap and patted dry. Moisten the applicator or a pad with erythromycin, then rub over the affected area. Acne lesions on the face, neck, shoulder, chest and back may be treated in this manner.
This medication should be applied with applicator top. If fingertips are used, wash hands after application. Drying and peeling may be controlled by reducing the frequency of applications.
Amantadine Hydrochloride Solution
The dose of amantadine hydrochloride may need reduction in patients with congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, orthostatic hypotension, or impaired renal function (see Dosage for Impaired Renal Function).
Dosage for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Uncomplicated Influenza A Virus Illness
The adult daily dosage of amantadine hydrochloride is 200 mg (four teaspoonfuls of oral solution) as a single daily dose. The daily dosage may be split into two teaspoonfuls of oral solution twice a day. If central nervous system effects develop in once-a-day dosage, a split dosage schedule may reduce such complaints.
In persons 65 years of age or older, the daily dosage of amantadine hydrochloride is 100 mg.
A 100 mg daily dose has also been shown in experimental challenge studies to be effective as prophylaxis in healthy adults who are not at high risk for influenza-related complications. However, it has not been demonstrated that a 100 mg daily dose is as effective as a 200 mg daily dose for prophylaxis, nor has the 100 mg daily dose been studied in the treatment of acute influenza illness. In recent clinical trials, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) side effects associated with the 100 mg daily dose was at or near the level of placebo. The 100 mg dose is recommended for persons who have demonstrated intolerance to 200 mg of amantadine hydrochloride daily because of CNS or other toxicities.
1 yr. to 9 yrs. of age
The total daily dose should be calculated on the basis of 2 to 4 mg/lb/day (4.4 to 8.8 mg/kg/day), but not to exceed 150 mg per day.
9 yrs. to 12 yrs. of age
The total daily dose is 200 mg given as two teaspoonfuls of oral solution twice a day. The 100 mg daily dose has not been studied in this pediatric population. Therefore, there are no data which demonstrate that this dose is as effective as or is safer than the 200 mg daily dose in this patient population.
Prophylactic dosing should be started in anticipation of an influenza A outbreak and before or after contact with individuals with influenza A virus respiratory tract illness.
Amantadine hydrochloride should be continued daily for at least 10 days following a known exposure. If amantadine hydrochloride is used chemoprophylactically in conjunction with inactivated influenza A virus vaccine until protective antibody responses develop, then it should be administered for 2 to 4 weeks after the vaccine has been given. When inactivated influenza A virus vaccine is unavailable or contraindicated, amantadine hydrochloride should be administered for the duration of known influenza A in the community because of repeated and unknown exposure.
Treatment of influenza A virus illness should be started as soon as possible, preferably within 24 to 48 hours after onset of signs and symptoms, and should be continued for 24 to 48 hours after the disappearance of signs and symptoms.
Dosage for Parkinsonism
The usual dose of amantadine hydrochloride is 100 mg twice a day when used alone. Amantadine hydrochloride has an onset of action usually within 48 hours.
The initial dose of amantadine hydrochloride is 100 mg daily for patients with serious associated medical illnesses or who are receiving high doses of other antiparkinson drugs. After one to several weeks at 100 mg once daily, the dose may be increased to 100 mg twice daily, if necessary.
Occasionally, patients whose responses are not optimal with amantadine hydrochloride at 200 mg daily may benefit from an increase up to 400 mg daily in divided doses. However, such patients should be supervised closely by their physicians.
Patients initially deriving benefit from amantadine hydrochloride not uncommonly experience a fall-off of effectiveness after a few months. Benefit may be regained by increasing the dose to 300 mg daily. Alternatively, temporary discontinuation of amantadine hydrochloride for several weeks, followed by reinitiation of the drug, may result in regaining benefit in some patients. A decision to use other antiparkinson drugs may be necessary.
Dosage for Concomitant Therapy
Some patients who do not respond to anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs may respond to amantadine hydrochloride. When amantadine hydrochloride or anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs are each used with marginal benefit, concomitant use may produce additional benefit.
When amantadine hydrochloride and levodopa are initiated concurrently, the patient can exhibit rapid therapeutic benefits. Amantadine hydrochloride should be held constant at 100 mg daily or twice daily while the daily dose of levodopa is gradually increased to optimal benefit.
When amantadine hydrochloride is added to optimal well-tolerated doses of levodopa, additional benefit may result, including smoothing out the fluctuations in improvement which sometimes occur in patients on levodopa alone. Patients who require a reduction in their usual dose of levodopa because of development of side effects may possibly regain lost benefit with the addition of amantadine hydrochloride.
Dosage for Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Reactions
The usual dose of amantadine hydrochloride is 100 mg twice a day. Occasionally, patients whose responses are not optimal with amantadine hydrochloride at 200 mg daily may benefit from an increase up to 300 mg daily in divided doses.
Dosage for Impaired Renal Function
Depending upon creatinine clearance, the following dosage adjustments are recommended:CREATININE CLEARANCE(mL/min/1.73m2) AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOSAGE 30 to 50 200 mg 1st day and 100 mgeach day thereafter 15 to 29 200 mg 1st day followed by 100 mgon alternate days <15 200 mg every 7 days
The recommended dosage for patients on hemodialysis is 200 mg every 7 days.
Promethazine With Codeine Cough
The combination of promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, because the combination may cause fatal respiratory depression in this age population.
It is important that promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate syrup is measured with an accurate measuring device (see PRECAUTIONS-Information for Patients). A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage, especially when half a teaspoon is to be measured. It is strongly recommended that an accurate measuring device be used. A pharmacist can provide an appropriate device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.
The average effective dose for adults and children (12 years and over) is: 1 teaspoonful (5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.
The average effective dose for children 6 years to under 12 years of age is ½ to 1 teaspoonful (2.5 mL to 5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.
Amoxicillin And Clavulanate Potassium
Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL, does not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt) as any of the other suspensions of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL contains 42.9 mg of clavulanic acid per 5 mL, whereas the 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL suspension of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium contains 28.5 mg of clavulanic acid per 5 mL and the 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL suspension contains 57 mg of clavulanic acid per 5 mL. Therefore, the 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL and 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL suspensions of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should not be substituted for Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL, as they are not interchangeable.
Pediatric patients 3 months and older
Based on the amoxicillin component (600 mg/5 mL), the recommended dose of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL is 90 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, administered for 10 days (see chart below).Body Weight (kg) Volume of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL Providing 90 mg/kg/day 8 3 mL twice daily 12 4.5 mL twice daily 16 6 mL twice daily 20 7.5 mL twice daily 24 9 mL twice daily 28 10.5 mL twice daily 32 12 mL twice daily 36 13.5 mL twice daily
Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg and more
Experience with Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL formulation in this group is not available.
Experience with Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL formulation in adults is not available and adults who have difficulty swallowing should not be given Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL in place of the 500 mg/125 mg or 875 mg/125 mg tablet of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium.
Hepatically impaired patients should be dosed with caution and hepatic function monitored at regular intervals. (See WARNINGS.)
Directions for Mixing Oral Suspension
Prepare a suspension at time of dispensing as follows: Tap bottle until all the powder flows freely. Add approximately 2/3 of the total amount of water for reconstitution (see table below) and shake vigorously to suspend powder. Add remainder of the water and again shake vigorously.Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL Bottle Size Amount of Water Required for Reconstitution 50 mL 47 mL 75 mL 67 mL 100 mL 87 mL 125 mL 110 mL 150 mL 128 mL 200 mL 175 mL
Each teaspoonful (5 mL) will contain 600 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 42.9 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
NOTE: SHAKE ORAL SUSPENSION WELL BEFORE USING.
To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL should be taken at the start of a meal. Absorption of clavulanate potassium may be enhanced when Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension, USP 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL is administered at the start of a meal.
Adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and over: 10 mL (2 teaspoonfuls) every 4 hours. Children 6 to under 12 years of age: 5 mL (1 teaspoonful) every 4 hours. Children 2 to under 6 years of age: 2.5 mL (½ teaspoonful) every 4 hours. Infants 6 months to under 2 years of age: Dosage to be established by a physician.
Do not exceed 6 doses during a 24-hour period.
Megestrol Acetate Suspension
The recommended adult initial dosage of Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension, USP is 800 mg/day (20 mL/day). Shake container well before using.
In clinical trials evaluating different dose schedules, daily doses of 400 and 800 mg/day were found to be clinically effective.
A plastic dosage cup with 10 mL and 20 mL markings is provided for convenience.
The usual adult oral dosage is 30 to 45 mL (2 to 3 tablespoonfuls, containing 20 g to 30 g of Generlac Solution) three or four times daily. The dosage may be adjusted every day or two to produce 2 or 3 soft stools daily.
Hourly doses of 30 to 45 mL of Generlac Solution may be used to induce the rapid laxation indicated in the initial phase of the therapy of portal-systemic encephalopathy. When the laxative effect has been achieved, the dose of Generlac Solution may then be reduced to the recommended daily dose. Improvement in the patient's condition may occur within 24 hours but may not begin before 48 hours or even later.
Continuous long-term therapy is indicated to lessen the severity and prevent the recurrence of portal-systemic encephalopathy. The dose of Generlac Solution for this purpose is the same as the recommended daily dose.
Very little information on the use of lactulose in pediatric patients has been recorded. As with adults, the subjective goal in proper treatment is to produce 2 to 3 soft stools daily. On the basis of information available, the recommended initial daily oral dose in infants is 2.5 to 10 mL in divided doses. For older pediatric patients, the total daily dose is 40 to 90 mL. If the initial dose causes diarrhea, the dose should be reduced immediately. If diarrhea persists, Generlac Solution should be discontinued.
When the adult patient is in the impending coma or coma stage of portal-systemic encephalopathy and the danger of aspiration exists, or when the necessary endoscopic or intubation procedures physically interfere with the administration of the recommended oral doses, Generlac Solution may be given as a retention enema via a rectal balloon catheter. Cleansing enemas containing soapsuds or other alkaline agents should not be used.
Three hundred mL of Generlac Solution should be mixed with 700 mL of water or physiologic saline and retained for 30 to 60 minutes. Generlac Solution enema may be repeated every 4 to 6 hours. If the enema is inadvertently evacuated too promptly, it may be repeated immediately.
The goal of treatment is reversal of the coma stage in order that the patient may be able to take oral medication. Reversal of coma may take place within 2 hours of the first enema in some patients. Generlac Solution, given orally in the recommended doses, should be started before Generlac Solution by enema is stopped entirely.
Acetic Acid Solution
Carefully remove all cerumen and debris to allow Acetic Acid Otic Solution to contact infected surfaces directly. To promote continuous contact, insert a wick of cotton saturated with the solution into the ear canal; the wick may also be saturated after insertion. Instruct the patient to keep the wick in for at least 24 hours and to keep it moist by adding 3 to 5 drops of the solution every 4 to 6 hours. The wick may be removed after 24 hours but the patient should continue to instill 5 drops of Acetic Acid Otic Solution 3 or 4 times daily thereafter, for as long as indicated. In pediatric patients, 3 to 4 drops may be sufficient due to the smaller capacity of the ear canal.
The usual dose is 15 to 30 mL (1 to 2 tablespoonfuls, containing 10 g to 20 g of lactulose) daily. The dose may be increased to 60 mL daily if necessary. Twenty-four to 48 hours may be required to produce a normal bowel movement.
NOTE: Some patients have found that lactulose solution may be more acceptable when mixed with fruit juice, water, or milk.
Patients should use Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP at regular intervals for optimal effect.
The recommended starting dosage in adults is 2 sprays (50 mcg of fluticasone propionate each) in each nostril once daily (total daily dose, 200 mcg). The same dosage divided into 100 mcg given twice daily (e.g., 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.) is also effective. After the first few days, patients may be able to reduce their dosage to 100 mcg (1 spray in each nostril) once daily for maintenance therapy. Some patients (12 years of age and older) with seasonal allergic rhinitis may find as-needed use of 200 mcg once daily effective for symptom control (see Clinical Trials). Greater symptom control may be achieved with scheduled regular use.
Adolescents and Children (4 Years of Age and Older)
Patients should be started with 100 mcg (1 spray in each nostril once daily). Patients not adequately responding to 100 mcg may use 200 mcg (2 sprays in each nostril). Once adequate control is achieved, the dosage should be decreased to 100 mcg (1 spray in each nostril) daily.
The maximum total daily dosage should not exceed 2 sprays in each nostril (200 mcg/day). (See Individualization of Dosage and Clinical Trials sections.)
Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP is not recommended for children under 4 years of age.
Directions for Use
Illustrated patient's instructions for proper use accompany each package of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP.
Prednisolone Sodium Phosphate Solution
The initial dose of prednisolone sodium phosphate oral solution, (15 mg prednisolone base) may vary from 1.67 mL to 20 mL (5 to 60 mg prednisolone base) per day depending on the specific disease entity being treated. In situations of less severity, lower doses will generally suffice while in selected patients higher initial doses may be required. The initial dosage should be maintained or adjusted until a satisfactory response is noted. If after a reasonable period of time, there is a lack of satisfactory clinical response, prednisolone sodium phosphate oral solution should be discontinued and the patient placed on other appropriate therapy. IT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED THAT DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE DISEASE UNDER TREATMENT AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT. After a favorable response is noted, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial drug dosage in small decrements at appropriate time intervals until the lowest dosage which will maintain an adequate clinical response is reached. It should be kept in mind that constant monitoring is needed in regard to drug dosage. Included in the situations which may make dosage adjustments necessary are changes in clinical status secondary to remissions or exacerbations in the disease process, the patient's individual drug responsiveness, and the effect of patient exposure to stressful situations not directly related to the disease entity under treatment; in this latter situation it may be necessary to increase the dosage of prednisolone sodium phosphate oral solution for a period of time consistent with the patient's condition. If after long term therapy the drug is to be stopped, it is recommended that it be withdrawn gradually rather than abruptly.
In the treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, daily doses of 200 mg of prednisolone for a week followed by 80 mg every other day or 4 to 8 mg dexamethasone every other day for one month have been shown to be effective.
In pediatric patients, the initial dose of prednisolone sodium phosphate oral solution may vary depending on the specific disease entity being treated. The range of initial doses is 0.14 to 2 mg/kg/day in three or four divided doses (4 to 60 mg/m2bsa/day).
The standard regimen used to treat nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients is 60 mg/m2/day given in three divided doses for 4 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of single dose alternate-day therapy at 40 mg/m2/day.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommended dosing for systemic prednisone, prednisolone or methylprednisolone in children whose asthma is uncontrolled by inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators is 1–2 mg/kg/day in single or divided doses. It is further recommended that short course, or "burst" therapy, be continued until a child achieves a peak expiratory flow rate of 80% of his or her personal best or symptoms resolve. This usually requires 3 to 10 days of treatment, although it can take longer. There is no evidence that tapering the dose after improvement will prevent a relapse.
For the purpose of comparison, 5 mL of prednisolone sodium phosphate oral solution (20.2 mg prednisolone sodium phosphate) is equivalent to the following milligram dosage of the various glucocorticoids:Cortisone, 75 Triamcinolone, 12 Hydrocortisone, 60 Paramethasone, 6 Prednisolone, 15 Betamethasone, 2.25 Prednisone, 15 Dexamethasone, 2.25 Methylprednisolone, 12
These dose relationships apply only to oral or intravenous administration of these compounds. When these substances or their derivatives are injected intramuscularly or into joint spaces, their relative properties may be greatly altered.
Cimetidine Hydrochloride Solution
Active Duodenal Ulcer
Clinical studies have indicated that suppression of nocturnal acid is the most important factor in duodenal ulcer healing (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY-Antisecretory Activity-Acid Secretion). This is supported by recent clinical trials (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY-Clinical Trials-Duodenal Ulcer-Active Duodenal Ulcers). Therefore, there is no apparent rationale, except for familiarity with use, for treating with anything other than a once-daily at bedtime dosage regimen (h.s.).
In a U.S. oral dose-ranging study of 400 mg h.s., 800 mg h.s. and 1600 mg h.s. a continuous dose response relationship for ulcer healing was demonstrated.
However, 800 mg h.s. is the dose of choice for most patients, as it provides a high healing rate (the difference between 800 mg h.s. and 1600 mg h.s. being small), maximal pain relief, a decreased potential for drug interactions (see PRECAUTIONS-Drug Interactions) and maximal patient convenience. Patients unhealed at four weeks or those with persistent symptoms, have been shown to benefit from 2 to 4 weeks of continued therapy.
It has been shown that patients who both have an endoscopically demonstrated ulcer larger than 1.0 cm and are also heavy smokers (i.e., smoke one pack of cigarettes or more per day) are more difficult to heal. There is some evidence which suggests that more rapid healing can be achieved in this subpopulation with cimetidine 1600 mg at bedtime. While early pain relief with either 800 mg h.s. or 1600 mg is equivalent in all patients, 1600 mg h.s. provides an appropriate alternative when it is important to ensure healing within 4 weeks for this subpopulation. Alternatively, approximately 94% of all patients will also heal in 8 weeks in cimetidine 800 mg h.s.
Other cimetidine regimens in the U.S. which have been shown to be effective are: 300 mg four times daily, with meals and at bedtime, the original regimen with which U.S. physicians have the most experience, and 400 mg twice daily, in the morning and at bedtime (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY-Clinical Trials-Duodenal Ulcer-Active Duodenal Ulcers).
Concomitant antacids should be given as needed for relief of pain. However, simultaneous administration of oral cimetidine and antacids is not recommended since antacids have been reported to interfere with the absorption of cimetidine.
While healing with cimetidine often occurs during the first week or two, treatment should be continued for 4–6 weeks unless healing has been demonstrated by endoscopic examination.
Maintenance Therapy for Duodenal Ulcer
In those patients requiring maintenance therapy, the recommended adult oral dose is 400 mg at bedtime.
Active Benign Gastric Ulcer
The recommended adult oral dosage for short-term treatment of active benign gastric ulcer is 800 mg h.s., or 300 mg four times a day with meals and at bedtime. Controlled clinical studies were limited to six weeks of treatment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY-Clinical Trials) 800 mg h.s. is the preferred regimen for most patients based upon convenience and reduced potential for drug interactions. Symptomatic response to cimetidine does not preclude the presence of a gastric malignancy. It is important to follow gastric ulcer patients to assure rapid progress to complete healing.
Erosive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
The recommended adult oral dosage for the treatment of erosive esophagitis that has been diagnosed by endoscopy is 1600 mg daily in divided doses (800 mg b.i.d. or 400 mg q.i.d.) for 12 weeks. The use of cimetidine beyond 12 weeks has not been established.
Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions
(such as Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome)
Recommended adult oral dosage: 300 mg four times a day with meals and at bedtime. In some patients it may be necessary to administer higher doses more frequently. Doses should be adjusted to individual patient needs, but should not usually exceed 2400 mg per day and should continue as long as clinically indicated.
Dosage Adjustment for Patients with Impaired Renal Function
Patients with severely impaired renal function have been treated with cimetidine. However, such usage has been very limited. On the basis of this experience the recommended dosage is 300 mg every 12 hours orally or by intravenous injection. Should the patient's condition require, the frequency of dosing may be increased to every 8 hours or even further with caution. In severe renal failure, accumulation may occur and the lowest frequency of dosing compatible with an adequate patient response should be used. When liver impairment is also present, further reductions in dosage may be necessary. Hemodialysis reduces the level of circulating cimetidine. Ideally, the dosage schedule should be adjusted so that the timing of a scheduled dose coincides with the end of hemodialysis.
2.1 Important Administration Instructions
Levetiracetam is given orally with or without food. The levetiracetam dosing regimen depends on the indication, age group, dosage form (tablets or oral solution), and renal function.
Prescribe the oral solution for pediatric patients with body weight ≤ 20 kg. Prescribe the oral solution or tablets for pediatric patients with body weight above 20 kg.
When using the oral solution in pediatric patients, dosing is weight-based (mg per kg) using a calibrated measuring device (not a household teaspoon or tablespoon).
2.2 Dosing for Partial Onset Seizures
Adults 16 Years and Older
Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Additional dosing increments may be given (1000 mg/day additional every 2 weeks) to a maximum recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. There is no evidence that doses greater than 3000 mg/day confer additional benefit.
1 Month to < 6 Months
Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 14 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (7 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 14 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 42 mg/kg (21 mg/kg twice daily). In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 35 mg/kg in this age group. The effectiveness of lower doses has not been studied.
6 Months to <4 Years:
Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose in 2 weeks by an increment of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 50 mg/kg (25 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 50 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 47 mg/kg in this age group.
4 Years to < 16 Years
Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 60 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 44 mg/kg. The maximum daily dose was 3000 mg/day.
Levetiracetam Oral Solution Weight-Based Dosing Calculation For Pediatric Patients
The following calculation should be used to determine the appropriate daily dose of oral solution for pediatric patients:Total daily dose (mL/day) = Daily dose (mg/kg/day) × patient weight (kg) 100 mg/mL
2.3 Dosing for Myoclonic Seizures in Patients 12 Years of Age and Older with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
Initiate treatment with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase the dosage by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been studied.
2.4 Dosing for Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures
Adults 16 Years and Older
Initiate treatment with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase dosage by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been adequately studied.
Pediatric Patients Ages 6 to <16 Years
Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). The effectiveness of doses lower than 60 mg/kg/day has not been adequately studied. Patients with body weight ≤20 kg should be dosed with oral solution. Patients with body weight above 20 kg can be dosed with either tablets or oral solution [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Only whole tablets should be administered.
2.5 Dosage Adjustments in Adult Patients with Renal Impairment
Levetiracetam oral solution dosing must be individualized according to the patient's renal function status. Recommended dosage adjustments for adults are shown in Table 1. In order to calculate the dose recommended for patients with renal impairment, creatinine clearance adjusted for body surface area must be calculated. To do this an estimate of the patient's creatinine clearance (CLcr) in mL/min must first be calculated using the following formula:CLcr = [140-age (years)] × weight (kg) (× 0.85 for female patients) 72 × serum creatinine (mg/dL)
Then CLcr is adjusted for body surface area (BSA) as follows:CLcr (mL/min/1.73m2) = CLcr (mL/min) × 1.73 BSA subject (m2) Table 1: Dosing Adjustment Regimen For Adult Patients with Renal Impairment Group Creatinine Clearance(mL/min/1.73m2) Dosage (mg) Frequency * Following dialysis, a 250 to 500 mg supplemental dose is recommended. Normal > 80 500 to 1,500 Every 12 hours Mild 50 – 80 500 to 1,000 Every 12 hours Moderate 30 – 50 250 to 750 Every 12 hours Severe < 30 250 to 500 Every 12 hours ESRD patients using dialysis —— 500 to 1,000* Every 24 hours*
Acetaminophen And Codeine Phosphate Solution
Dosage should be adjusted according to severity of pain and response of the patient. However, it should be kept in mind that tolerance to codeine can develop with continued use and that the incidence of untoward effects is dose related. Adult doses of codeine higher than 60 mg fail to give commensurate relief of pain but merely prolong analgesia and are associated with an appreciable increased incidence of undesirable side effects. Equivalently high doses in children would have similar effects.
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate oral solution contains 120 mg of acetaminophen and 12 mg of codeine phosphate per 5 mL (teaspoonful) and is given orally.
The recommended dose of codeine phosphate in children is 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The usual doses are:Children: (7 to 12 years): 10 mL (2 teaspoonfuls) 3 or 4 times daily. (3 to 6 years): 5 mL (1 teaspoonful) 3 or 4 times daily. (under 3 years): safe dosage has not been established. Adults: 15 mL (1 tablespoonful) every 4 hours as needed.
Therapy with metoclopramide oral solution should not exceed 12 weeks in duration.
For the Relief of Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux
Administer from 10 mg to 15 mg metoclopramide orally up to q.i.d. 30 minutes before each meal and at bedtime, depending upon symptoms being treated and clinical response (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and INDICATIONS AND USAGE).
If symptoms occur only intermittently or at specific times of the day, use of metoclopramide in single doses up to 20 mg prior to the provoking situation may be preferred rather than continuous treatment. Occasionally, patients (such as elderly patients) who are more sensitive to the therapeutic or adverse effects of metoclopramide will require only 5 mg per dose.
Experience with esophageal erosions and ulcerations is limited, but healing has thus far been documented in one controlled trial using q.i.d. therapy at 15 mg/dose, and this regimen should be used when lesions are present, so long as it is tolerated (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Because of the poor correlation between symptoms and endoscopic appearance of the esophagus, therapy directed at esophageal lesions is best guided by endoscopic evaluation.
Therapy longer than 12 weeks has not been evaluated and cannot be recommended.
For the Relief of Symptoms Associated with Diabetic Gastroparesis (diabetic gastric stasis)
Administer 10 mg of metoclopramide 30 minutes before each meal and at bedtime for two to eight weeks, depending upon response and the likelihood of continued well-being upon drug discontinuation.
The initial route of administration should be determined by the severity of the presenting symptoms. If only the earliest manifestations of diabetic gastric stasis are present, oral administration of metoclopramide may be initiated. However, if severe symptoms are present, therapy should begin with metoclopramide injection (consult labeling of the injection prior to initiating parenteral administration).
Administration of metoclopramide injection up to 10 days may be required before symptoms subside, at which time oral administration may be instituted. Since diabetic gastric stasis is frequently recurrent, metoclopramide therapy should be reinstituted at the earliest manifestation.
Amoxicillin And Clavulanate Potassium
Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL may be taken without regard to meals; however, absorption of clavulanate potassium is enhanced when Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL is administered at the start of a meal. To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL should be taken at the start of a meal.
The usual adult dose is one 500 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium every 12 hours or one 250 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium every 8 hours. For more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the dose should be one 875 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium every 12 hours or one 500 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium every 8 hours. Adults who have difficulty swallowing may be given the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL or 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension in place of the 500 mg/125 mg tablet. The 200 mg/28.5 mg suspension or the 400 mg/57 mg suspension may be used in place of the 875 mg/125 mg tablet.
Two 250 mg/125 mg tablets of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium should not be substituted for one 500 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium. Since both the 250 mg/125 mg and 500 mg/125 mg tablets of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg/125 mg tablets are not equivalent to one 500 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium.
The 250 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet should not be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable. The 250 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium and the 250 mg /62.5 mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt). The 250 mg/125 mg tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid, whereas the 250 mg/62.5 chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid.
2.2 Pediatric Patients
Based on the amoxicillin component, Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL should be dosed as follows:
Neonates and Infants Aged <12 weeks (<3 months): The recommended dose of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, based on the amoxicillin component. Experience with the 200 mg/5 mL formulation in this age group is limited, and thus, use of the 125 mg/5 mL oral suspension is recommended.
Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older: See dosing regimens provided in Table 1. The every 12 hour regimen is recommended as it is associated with significantly less diarrhea [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. However, the every 12 hour suspension (200 mg/5 mL and 400 mg/5 mL) and chewable tablets (200 mg and 400 mg) contain aspartame and should not be used by phenylketonurics. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]Table 1: Dosing in Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older INFECTION DOSING REGIMEN Every 12 hours Every 8 hours 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL or 400 mg/57mg per 5 mL oral suspension* 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL or 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL oral suspension* * Each strength of suspension of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium is available as a chewable tablet for use by older children. † Duration of therapy studied and recommended for acute otitis media is 10 days. Otitis mediab†, sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and more severe infections 45 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hours Less severe infections 25 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 20 mg/kg/day every 8 hours
Patients Weighing 40 kg or More: Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations.
The 250-mg tablet should not be used until the child weighs at least 40 kg, due to the different amoxicillin to clavulanic acid ratios in the 250-mg tablet (250/125) versus the 250-mg chewable tablet of (250/62.5).
2.3 Patients with Renal Impairment
Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe. Renal impairment patients with a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min should not receive the 875 mg dose. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection.
Hemodialysis patients should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.
2.4 Directions for Mixing Oral Suspension
Prepare a suspension at time of dispensing as follows: Tap bottle until all the powder flows freely. Add approximately 2/3 of the total amount of water for reconstitution (see Table 2 below) and shake vigorously to suspend powder. Add remainder of the water and again shake vigorously.Table 2: Amount of Water for Mixing Oral Suspension Strength Bottle Size Amount of Water for Reconstitution Contents of Each Teaspoonful (5 mL) Note: Shake oral suspension well before using. Reconstituted suspension must be stored under refrigeration and discarded after 10 days. 250 mg/5 mL 75 mL100 mL150 mL 68 mL86 mL128 mL 250 mg amoxicillin and 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid as the potassium salt
2.1 Major Depressive Disorder
Adult — In controlled trials used to support the efficacy of fluoxetine, patients were administered morning doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/day. Studies comparing fluoxetine 20, 40, and 60 mg/day to placebo indicate that 20 mg/day is sufficient to obtain a satisfactory response in Major Depressive Disorder in most cases. Consequently, a dose of 20 mg/day, administered in the morning, is recommended as the initial dose.
A dose increase may be considered after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. Doses above 20 mg/day may be administered on a once-a-day (morning) or BID schedule (i.e., morning and noon) and should not exceed a maximum dose of 80 mg/day.
Pediatric (children and adolescents)— In the short-term (8 to 9 week) controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder, patients were administered fluoxetine doses of 10 to 20 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 or 20 mg/day. After 1 week at 10 mg/day, the dose should be increased to 20 mg/day.
However, due to higher plasma levels in lower weight children, the starting and target dose in this group may be 10 mg/day. A dose increase to 20 mg/day may be considered after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed.
All patients — As with other drugs effective in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder, the full effect may be delayed until 4 weeks of treatment or longer.
Maintenance/Continuation/Extended Treatment — It is generally agreed that acute episodes of Major Depressive Disorder require several months or longer of sustained pharmacologic therapy. Whether the dose needed to induce remission is identical to the dose needed to maintain and/or sustain euthymia is unknown.
Daily Dosing — Systematic evaluation of fluoxetine in adult patients has shown that its efficacy in Major Depressive Disorder is maintained for periods of up to 38 weeks following 12 weeks of open-label acute treatment (50 weeks total) at a dose of 20 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Switching Patients to a Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA) — Dosage of a TCA may need to be reduced, and plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored temporarily when fluoxetine is coadministered or has been recently discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7.9)].
Switching Patients to or from a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) — At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI and initiation of therapy with fluoxetine. In addition, at least 5 weeks, perhaps longer, should be allowed after stopping fluoxetine before starting an MAOI [see Contraindications (4) and Drug Interactions (7.1)].
2.2 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Adult — In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of OCD, patients were administered fixed daily doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg of fluoxetine or placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. In one of these studies, no dose-response relationship for effectiveness was demonstrated. Consequently, a dose of 20 mg/day, administered in the morning, is recommended as the initial dose. Since there was a suggestion of a possible dose-response relationship for effectiveness in the second study, a dose increase may be considered after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. The full therapeutic effect may be delayed until 5 weeks of treatment or longer.
Doses above 20 mg/day may be administered on a once daily (i.e., morning) or BID schedule (i.e., morning and noon). A dose range of 20 to 60 mg/day is recommended; however, doses of up to 80 mg/day have been well tolerated in open studies of OCD. The maximum fluoxetine dose should not exceed 80 mg/day.
Pediatric (children and adolescents) — In the controlled clinical trial of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of OCD, patients were administered fluoxetine doses in the range of 10 to 60 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
In adolescents and higher weight children, treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 mg/day. After 2 weeks, the dose should be increased to 20 mg/day. Additional dose increases may be considered after several more weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. A dose range of 20 to 60 mg/day is recommended.
In lower weight children, treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 mg/day. Additional dose increases may be considered after several more weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. A dose range of 20 to 30 mg/day is recommended. Experience with daily doses greater than 20 mg is very minimal, and there is no experience with doses greater than 60 mg.
Maintenance/Continuation Treatment — While there are no systematic studies that answer the question of how long to continue fluoxetine, OCD is a chronic condition and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Although the efficacy of fluoxetine after 13 weeks has not been documented in controlled trials, adult patients have been continued in therapy under double-blind conditions for up to an additional 6 months without loss of benefit. However, dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for treatment.
2.3 Bulimia Nervosa
Initial Treatment — In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of Bulimia Nervosa, patients were administered fixed daily fluoxetine doses of 20 or 60 mg, or placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. Only the 60 mg dose was statistically significantly superior to placebo in reducing the frequency of binge-eating and vomiting. Consequently, the recommended dose is 60 mg/day, administered in the morning. For some patients it may be advisable to titrate up to this target dose over several days. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically studied in patients with bulimia.
Maintenance/Continuation Treatment — Systematic evaluation of continuing fluoxetine 60 mg/day for periods of up to 52 weeks in patients with bulimia who have responded while taking fluoxetine 60 mg/day during an 8-week acute treatment phase has demonstrated a benefit of such maintenance treatment [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. Nevertheless, patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.
2.4 Panic Disorder
Initial Treatment — In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of Panic Disorder, patients were administered fluoxetine doses in the range of 10 to 60 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.4)]. Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 mg/day. After one week, the dose should be increased to 20 mg/day. The most frequently administered dose in the 2 flexible-dose clinical trials was 20 mg/day.
A dose increase may be considered after several weeks if no clinical improvement is observed. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically evaluated in patients with Panic Disorder.
Maintenance/Continuation Treatment — While there are no systematic studies that answer the question of how long to continue fluoxetine, panic disorder is a chronic condition and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Nevertheless, patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.
2.5 Dosing in Specific Populations
Treatment of pregnant Women During the Third Trimester— When treating pregnant women with fluoxetine during the third trimester, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and potential benefits of treatment. Neonates exposed to SNRIs or SSRIs late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. The physician may consider tapering fluoxetine in the third trimester [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Geriatrics— A lower or less frequent dosage should be considered for the elderly [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Hepatic Impairment — As with many other medications, a lower or less frequent dosage should be used in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Concomitant Illness — Patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications may require dosage adjustments [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
2.6 Discontinuation of Treatment
Symptoms associated with discontinuation of fluoxetine, SNRIs, and SSRIs, have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].
Clobetasol Propionate Solution
Clobetasol propionate topical solution should be applied to the affected scalp areas twice daily, once in the morning and once at night.
Clobetasol propionate topical solution is potent; therefore, treatment must be limited to two consecutive weeks, and amounts greater than 50 mL/week should not be used.
Clobetasol propionate topical solution is not to be used with occlusive dressings.
In studies where geriatric patients (65 years of age or older, see PRECAUTIONS) have been treated with clobetasol propionate topical solution, safety did not differ from that in younger patients; therefore, no dosage adjustment is recommended.
Doxepin Hydrochloride Solution
For most patients with illness of mild to moderate severity, a starting daily dose of 75 mg is recommended. Dosage may subsequently be increased or decreased at appropriate intervals and according to individual response. The usual optimum dose range is 75 mg/day to 150 mg/day.
In more severely ill patients higher doses may be required with subsequent gradual increase to 300 mg/day if necessary. Additional therapeutic effect is rarely to be obtained by exceeding a dose of 300 mg/day.
In patients with very mild symptomatology or emotional symptoms accompanying organic disease, lower doses may suffice. Some of these patients have been controlled on doses as low as 25 to 50 mg/day.
The total daily dosage of doxepin hydrochloride may be given on a divided or once-a-day dosage schedule. If the once-a-day schedule is employed, the maximum recommended dose is 150 mg/day. This dose may be given at bedtime.
Anti-anxiety effect is apparent before the antidepressant effect. Optimal antidepressant effect may not be evident for two to three weeks.
When Lidocaine Hydrochloride Topical Solution, USP 4% is used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine, the total dose contributed by all formulations must be kept in mind.
The dosage varies and depends upon the area to be anesthetized, vascularity of the tissues, individual tolerance, and the technique of anesthesia. The lowest dosage needed to provide effective anesthesia should be administered. Dosages should be reduced for children and for elderly and debilitated patients. Although the incidence of adverse effects with Lidocaine Hydrochloride is quite low, caution should be exercised, particularly when employing large volumes, since the incidence of adverse effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent administered.
The dosages recommended below are for normal, healthy adults:
When used as a spray, or when applied by means of cotton applicators or packs, as when instilled into a cavity, the suggested dosage of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Topical Solution is 1 to 5 mL (40 to 200 mg lidocaine hydrochloride), i.e., 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg or 0.3 to 1.5 mg/lb body weight.
NOTE: The solution may be applied with a sterile swab which is discarded after a single use and never reused under any circumstances. When spraying, transfer the solution from the original container to an atomizer.
The maximum recommended single dose of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Oral Topical Solution 2% for healthy adults should be such that the dose of lidocaine hydrochloride does not exceed 4.5 mg/kg or 2 mg/lb body weight and does not in any case exceed a total of 300 mg.
For symptomatic treatment of irritated or inflamed mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx, the usual adult dose is one tablespoonful (15 mL) undiluted. For use in the mouth, the solution should be swished around in the mouth and spit out. For use in the pharynx, the undiluted solution should be gargled and may be swallowed. This dose should not be administered at intervals of less than three hours, and not more than eight doses should be given in a 24-hour period.
The dosage should be adjusted commensurate with the patient's age, weight and physical condition (see PRECAUTIONS).
Care must be taken to ensure correct dosage in all pediatric patients as there have been cases of overdose due to inappropriate dosing.
It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children since this varies as a function of age and weight. For children over 3 years of age who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose is determined by the child's weight or age. For example: in a child of 5 years weighing 50 lbs., the dose of lidocaine hydrochloride should not exceed 75 to 100 mg (3.7 to 5 mL of lidocaine hydrochloride oral topical solution).
For infants and in children under 3 years of age, the solution should be accurately measured and no more than 1.2 mL be applied to the immediate area with a cotton-tipped applicator. Wait at least 3 hours before giving the next dose; a maximum of four doses may be given in a 12-hour period. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Oral Topical Solution, USP 2% should only be used if the underlying condition requires treatment with a volume of product that is less than or equal to 1.2 mL of the solution.
Adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and over: 10 mL (2 teaspoonfuls) every 4 hours. Children 6 to under 12 years of age: 5 mL (1 teaspoonful) every 4 hours.Children 2 to under 6 years of age: 2.5 mL (½ teaspoonful) every 4 hours. Infants 6 months to under 2 years of age: Dosage to be established by a physician.
Do not exceed 6 doses during a 24-hour period.
Hydrocodone Bitartrate And Homatropine Methylbromide Syrup
Adults and children 12 years of age and over: 5 mL (teaspoonful) of the syrup every four to six hours as needed; do not exceed 6 teaspoonfuls in 24 hours.
Children 6 to 12 years of age: 2.5 mL (½ teaspoonful) of the syrup every four to six hours as needed; do not exceed 3 teaspoonfuls in 24 hours.
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