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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Sodium Chloride must be used with caution in the presence of congestive heart failure, circulatory insufficiency, kidney dysfunction or hypoproteinemia. Excessive amounts of sodium chloride by any route may cause hypokalemia and acidosis.
Excessive amounts by parental routes may precipitate congestive heart failure and acute pulmonary edema, especially seen in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease and those receiving corticos-teroids, corticotropin or other drugs that may give rise to sodium retention. For use in newborns, when a Sodium Chloride solution is required for preparation or diluting medications, or in flushing intravenous catheters, only preservative-free Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 0.9% should be used.
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION, FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK, SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS). DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.
Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.
To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.
Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (e.g., methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental.
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FDA Safety Alerts
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FDA Labeling Changes
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Sodium Chloride Injection is used to flush intravascular catheters or as a sterile, isotonic single dose vehicle, solvent, or diluent for substances to be administered intravenously, intramuscularly or sub-cutaneously and for other extemporaneously prepared single dose sterile solutions according to instructions of the manufacture of the drug to be administered.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution of sodium chloride 0.9% (9 mg/mL) in Water for Injection containing no antimicrobial agent or other added substance. The pH is between 4.5 and 7.0. Its chloride and sodium ion concentrates are approximately 0.154 mEq of each per milliliter and its calculated osmolality is 0.308 milliosmols per mL.
Sodium chloride occurs as colorless cubic crystals or white crystalline powder and has a saline taste. Sodium Chloride is freely soluble in water. It is soluble in glycerin and slightly soluble in alcohol. The empirical formula for sodium chloride is NaCl, and the molecular weight is 58.44.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of lidocaine hydrochloride in water for injection for parenteral administration in various concentrations with characteristics as follows:
mg/mL lidocaine HCl (anhyd.)
mg/mL sodium chloride
Multiple-dose vials contain 0.1% of methylparaben added as preservative. May contain sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment. The pH is 6.5 (5.0 to 7.0). See HOW SUPPLIED section for various sizes and strengths.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride, USP is chemically designated 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-acetamide monohydrochloride monohydrate, a white powder freely soluble in water. The molecular weight is 288.82. It has the following structural formula:
The semi-rigid vial used for the plastic vials is fabricated from a specially formulated polyolefin. It is a copolymer of ethylene and propylene. The safety of the plastic has been confirmed by tests in animals according to USP biological standards for plastic containers. The container requires no vapor barrier to maintain the proper drug concentration.