Ampicillin Sodium And Sulbactam Sodium Recall
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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more apt to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or hypersensitivity reactions to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before therapy with a penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, and other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection should be discontinued and the appropriate therapy instituted.
Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice has been associated with the use of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection. Hepatic toxicity is usually reversible; however, deaths have been reported. Hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals in patients with hepatic impairment.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial drug use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
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FDA Safety Alerts
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FDA Labeling Changes
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Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,1 Klebsiella spp.1 (including K. pneumoniae1), Proteus mirabilis,1 Bacteroides fragilis,1 Enterobacter spp.,1 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.1
NOTE: For information on use in pediatric patients see PRECAUTIONS–Pediatric Use and CLINICAL STUDIES sections.
Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae1), Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis), and Enterobacter spp.1
Gynecological Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli,1 and Bacteroides spp.1 (including B. fragilis1).
While Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection is indicated only for the conditions listed above, infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms are also amenable to treatment with Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection due to its ampicillin content. Therefore, mixed infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms and beta-lactamase producing organisms susceptible to Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection should not require the addition of another antibacterial.
Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify the organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection.
Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining the results from bacteriological and susceptibility studies when there is reason to believe the infection may involve any of the beta-lactamase producing organisms listed above in the indicated organ systems. Once the results are known, therapy should be adjusted if appropriate.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection and other antibacterial drugs, Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.1 Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections.
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Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP is an injectable antibacterial combination consisting of the semisynthetic antibacterial ampicillin sodium and the beta-lactamase inhibitor sulbactam sodium for intravenous and intramuscular administration.
Ampicillin sodium is derived from the penicillin nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid. Chemically, it is monosodium (2S, 5R, 6R)-6-[(R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetamido]-3, 3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate and has a molecular weight of 371.39. Its chemical formula is C16H18N3NaO4S. The structural formula is:
Sulbactam sodium is a derivative of the basic penicillin nucleus. Chemically, sulbactam sodium is sodium penicillinate sulfone; sodium (2S, 5R)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2.0] heptane-2-carboxylate 4,4-dioxide. Its chemical formula is C8H10NNaO5S with a molecular weight of 255.22. The structural formula is:
Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP, ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium parenteral combination, is available as a white to off-white dry powder for reconstitution. Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection dry powder is freely soluble in aqueous diluents to yield pale yellow to yellow solutions containing ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium equivalent to 250 mg ampicillin per mL and 125 mg sulbactam per mL. The pH of the solutions is between 8 and 10.
Dilute solutions (up to 30 mg ampicillin and 15 mg sulbactam per mL) are essentially colorless to pale yellow. The pH of dilute solutions remains the same.
Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP pharmacy bulk package is a bottle containing a sterile preparation of ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium for parenteral use that contains many single doses. The Pharmacy Bulk Package is for use in a pharmacy admixture setting; it provides many single doses of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection for addition to suitable parenteral fluids in the preparation of admixtures for intravenous infusion.
(See DIRECTIONS FOR USE – Directions for Proper Use of Pharmacy Bulk Package.)
Each 15 g Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection Pharmacy Bulk Package bottle contains ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium equivalent to 10 g ampicillin and 5 g sulbactam. The sodium content per 1.5 gram is 115.1 mg and 5 mEq.