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Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC) REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS ON PENICILLIN THERAPY. THESE REACTIONS ARE MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND/OR A HISTORY OF SENSITIVITY TO MULTIPLE ALLERGENS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED SEVERE REACTIONS WHEN TREATED WITH CEPHALOSPORINS. BEFORE INITIATING THERAPY WITH AUGMENTIN XR, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE CONCERNING PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS, OR OTHER ALLERGENS. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION OCCURS, AUGMENTIN XR SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND THE APPROPRIATE THERAPY INSTITUTED. SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE. OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including AUGMENTIN XR, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
AUGMENTIN XR should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Hepatic toxicity associated with the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium is usually reversible. On rare occasions, deaths have been reported (less than 1 death reported per estimated 4 million prescriptions worldwide). These have generally been cases associated with serious underlying diseases or concomitant medications (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS—Liver).
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FDA Safety Alerts
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There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.
AUGMENTIN XR Extended Release Tablets are indicated for the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia or acute bacterial sinusitis due to confirmed, or suspected β-lactamase−producing pathogens (i.e., H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, H. parainfluenzae, K. pneumoniae, or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) and S. pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin (i.e., penicillin MICs = 2 mcg/mL). AUGMENTIN XR is not indicated for the treatment of infections due to S. pneumoniae with penicillin MICs ≥ 4 mcg/mL. Data are limited with regard to infections due to S. pneumoniaewith penicillin MICs ≥ 4 mcg/mL (see CLINICAL STUDIES).
Of the common epidemiological risk factors for patients with resistant pneumococcal infections, only age > 65 years was studied. Patients with other common risk factors for resistant pneumococcal infections (e.g., alcoholism, immune-suppressive illness, and presence of multiple co-morbid conditions) were not studied.
In patients with community-acquired pneumonia in whom penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae is suspected, bacteriological studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility when AUGMENTIN XR is prescribed.
Acute bacterial sinusitis or community-acquired pneumonia due to a penicillin-susceptible strain of S. pneumoniae plus a β-lactamase−producing pathogen can be treated with another AUGMENTIN® (amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium) product containing lower daily doses of amoxicillin (i.e., 500 mg every 8 hours or 875 mg every 12 hours). Acute bacterial sinusitis or community-acquired pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae alone can be treated with amoxicillin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AUGMENTIN XR and other antibacterial drugs, AUGMENTIN XR should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
AUGMENTIN XR is an oral antibacterial combination consisting of the semisynthetic antibiotic amoxicillin (present as amoxicillin trihydrate and amoxicillin sodium) and the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid). Amoxicillin is an analog of ampicillin, derived from the basic penicillin nucleus 6-aminopenicillanic acid. The amoxicillin trihydrate molecular formula is C16H19N3O5S•3H2O, and the molecular weight is 419.45. Chemically, amoxicillin trihydrate is (2S,5R ,6R)-6-[(R )-(-)-2-Amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate and may be represented structurally as:
The amoxicillin sodium molecular formula is C16H18N3NaO5S, and the molecular weight is 387.39. Chemically, amoxicillin sodium is [2S-[2α,5α,6β(S *)]]-6-[[Amino(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid monosodium salt and may be represented structurally as:
Clavulanic acid is produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a β-lactam structurally related to the penicillins and possesses the ability to inactivate a wide variety of β-lactamases by blocking the active sites of these enzymes. Clavulanic acid is particularly active against the clinically important plasmid-mediated β-lactamases frequently responsible for transferred drug resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. The clavulanate potassium molecular formula is C8H8KNO5, and the molecular weight is 237.25. Chemically, clavulanate potassium is potassium (Z)-(2R ,5R)-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane-2-carboxylate, and may be represented structurally as:
Citric acid, colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, and xanthan gum.
Each tablet of AUGMENTIN XR contains 12.6 mg (0.32 mEq) of potassium and 29.3 mg (1.27 mEq) of sodium.