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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Beta blockers, like metoprolol tartrate, can cause depression of myocardial contractility and may precipitate heart failure and cardiogenic shock. If signs or symptoms of heart failure develop, treat the patient according to recommended guidelines. It may be necessary to lower the dose of metoprolol tartrate or to discontinue it.
Do not abruptly discontinue metoprolol tartrate therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Several exacerbation of angina, myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients with coronary artery disease following the abrupt discontinuation of therapy with beta-blockers. When discontinuing chronically administered metoprolol tartrate, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1-2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, metoprolol tartrate administration should be reinstated promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Patients should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue metoprolol tartrate therapy abruptly even in patients treated only for hypertension.
Chronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery; however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adernergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.
Bradycardia, including sinus pause, heart block, and cardiac arrest have occurred with the use of metoprolol tartrate. Patients with first-degree atrioventricular block, sinus node dysfunction, or conduction disorders may be at increased risk. Monitor heart rate and rhythm in patients receiving metoprolol tartrate. If severe bradycardia develops, reduce or stop metoprolol tartrate.
Patients with bronchospastic disease,should, in general, not receive beta blockers, including metoprolol tartrate. Because of its relative beta1 selectivity, however, metoprolol tartrate may be used in patients with bronchospastic disease who do not respond to, or cannot tolerate, other antihypertensive treatment. Because beta1 selectivity is not absolute use the lowest possible dose of metoprolol tartrate and consider administering metoprolol tartrate in smaller doses three times daily, instead of larger doses two times daily, to avoid the higher plasma levels associated with the longer dosing interval (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Bronchodilators, including beta2 agonists, should be readily available or administered concomitantly.
Beta blockers may mask tachycardia occurring with hypoglycemia, but other manifestations such as dizziness and sweating may not be significantly affected.
If metoprolol tartrate is used in the setting of pheochromocytoma, it should be given in combination with an alpha blocker, and only after the alpha blocker has been initiated. Administration of beta blockers alone in the setting of pheochromocytoma has been associated with a paradoxical increase in blood pressure due to the attenuation of beta-mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscle.
Metoprolol tartrate may mask certain clinical signs (e.g., tachycardia) of hyperthyroidism. Avoid abrupt withdrawal of beta blockade, which might precipitate a thyroid storm.
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FDA Safety Alerts
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FDA Labeling Changes
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Metoprolol Tartrate Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction to reduce cardiovascular mortality when used in conjunction with oral metoprolol maintenance therapy. Treatment with intravenous metoprolol tartrate can be initiated as soon as the patient’s clinical condition allows (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRA-INDICATIONS, and WARNINGS).
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Metoprolol Tartrate Injection, USP, metoprolol tartrate USP is a selective beta1-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, available as 5 mL vials for intravenous administration.
Each vial contains a sterile solution of metoprolol tartrate, 5 mg, and sodium chloride, 45 mg, and water for injection. Metoprolol tartrate is (±)-1-(Isopropylamino)-3-[p-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]-2-propanol L-(+)-tartrate (2:1) salt, and its structural formula is
Metoprolol tartrate is a white, practically odorless, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 684.81. It is very soluble in water; freely soluble in methylene chloride, in chloroform, and in alcohol; slightly soluble in acetone; and insoluble in ether.