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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Severe Skin Reactions
Severe skin reactions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, some with fatal outcome, have been reported. In case of such an event, treatment should be permanently discontinued.
A careful inquiry should be made concerning previous sensitivities to drugs and other allergens.
Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity in Pediatric Patients (“Gasping Syndrome”)
This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. The preservative benzyl alcohol has been associated with serious adverse events, including the “Gasping Syndrome”, and death in pediatric patients. Although normal therapeutic doses of this product ordinarily deliver amounts of benzyl alcohol that are substantially lower than those reported in association with the “gasping syndrome”, the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. The risk of benzyl alcohol toxicity depends on the quantity administered and the hepatic capacity to detoxify the chemical. Premature and low birth weight infants may be more likely to develop toxicity.
Usage in Meningitis
Since clindamycin does not diffuse adequately into the cerebrospinal fluid, the drug should not be used in the treatment of meningitis.
SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE. OXYGEN AND INTRAVENOUS CORTICOSTEROIDS SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND EPINEPHRINE INJECTION, USP FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS). DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.
Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.
To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.
Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (e.g., methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.
Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.
In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium ions may result in sodium retention.
The intravenous administration of these solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema.
Extravascular infiltration should be avoided, see ADVERSE REACTIONS.
There is currently no legal information available for this drug.
FDA Safety Alerts
There are currently no FDA safety alerts available for this drug.
There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.
Clindamycin Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria.
Clindamycin Injection, USP is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).
Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
Clindamycin Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the conditions listed below:
Lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscess caused by anaerobes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (except E. faecalis), and Staphylococcusaureus.
Skin and skin structure infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes.
Gynecological infections including endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection caused by susceptible anaerobes.
Intra-abdominal infections including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess caused by susceptible anaerobic organisms.
Septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis), and susceptible anaerobes.
Bone and joint infections including acute hematogenous osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and as adjunctive therapy in the surgical treatment of chronic bone and joint infections due to susceptible organisms.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection, by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.
Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate is further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturate-protein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of blood pigments. Sodium bicarbonate also is indicated in severe diarrhea which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate.
Treatment of metabolic acidosis should, if possible, be superimposed on measures designed to control the basic cause of the acidosis – e.g., insulin in uncomplicated diabetes, blood volume restoration in shock. But since an appreciable time interval may elapse before all of the ancillary effects are brought about, bicarbonate therapy is indicated to minimize risks inherent to the acidosis itself.
Vigorous bicarbonate therapy is required in any form of metabolic acidosis where a rapid increase in plasma total CO 2 content is crucial – e.g., cardiac arrest, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, and in severe primary lactic acidosis or severe diabetic acidosis.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Clindamycin Injection, USP, a water soluble ester of clindamycin and phosphoric acid, is a sterile solution for intramuscular or intravenous use.
May contain sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment. pH is 6.5 range 5.5 to 7.0.
Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent compound lincomycin.
The chemical name of clindamycin phosphate is methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl- trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L- threo-α-D- galacto-octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate).
The molecular formula is C 18H 34ClN 2O 8PS and the molecular weight is 504.97.
The structural formula is represented below:
Each mL contains clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 150 mg clindamycin, 0.5 mg disodium edetate and 9.45 mg benzyl alcohol added as a preservative.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine in water for injection for parenteral administration in various concentrations with characteristics as follows:
Sodium metabisulfite 0.5 mg/mL and citric acid, anhydrous 0.2 mg/mL added as stabilizers. The headspace of Lists 1209, and 3179 are carbon dioxide gassed and Lists 3177, 3178, 3181, 3182 and 3183 are nitrogen gassed. May contain sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid to adjust pH; pH is 4.5 (3.3 to 5.5). See HOW SUPPLIED section for various sizes and strengths.
Multiple-dose vials contain methylparaben 1 mg/mL added as preservative.
Single-dose ampuls and vials contain no bacteriostat or antimicrobial agent. Discard unused portion.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride, USP is chemically designated 2-(diethyl-amino)-2’,6’-acetoxylidide monohydrochloride monohydrate, a white powder freely soluble in water. It has the following structural formula:
Epinephrine, USP is a sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agent designated chemically as 4-[1-hydroxy-2 (methylamino) ethyl]-1,2 benzenediol, a white, microcrystalline powder. It has the following structural formula:
Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3) in water for injection for administration by the intravenous route as an electrolyte replenisher and systemic alkalizer.
The solution is offered in a concentration of 8.4%. See table in HOW SUPPLIED section for contents and characteristics.
The solution contains no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent or added buffer and is intended only for use as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required, the unused portion should be discarded with the entire unit.
Sodium bicarbonate, 84 mg is equal to one milliequivalent each of Na + and HCO 3¯. Sodium Bicarbonate, USP is chemically designated NaHCO 3, a white crystalline powder soluble in water.
Water for Injection, USP is chemically designated H 2O.