Glyburide And Metformin Hydrochloride Recall
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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Lactic acidosis is a rare, but serious, metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation during treatment with glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets; when it occurs, it is fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/L), decreased blood pH, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels >5 mcg/mL are generally found.
The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin hydrochloride is very low (approximately 0.03 cases/1000 patient-years, with approximately 0.015 fatal cases/1000 patient-years). In more than 20,000 patient-years exposure to metformin in clinical trials, there were no reports of lactic acidosis. Reported cases have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal insufficiency, including both intrinsic renal disease and renal hypoperfusion, often in the setting of multiple concomitant medical/surgical problems and multiple concomitant medications. Patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute congestive heart failure who are at risk of hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at increased risk of lactic acidosis. The risk of lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient's age. The risk of lactic acidosis may, therefore, be significantly decreased by regular monitoring of renal function in patients taking metformin and by use of the minimum effective dose of metformin. In particular, treatment of the elderly should be accompanied by careful monitoring of renal function. Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride treatment should not be initiated in patients ≥80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, as these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis. In addition, glyburide and metformin hydrochloride should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis. Because impaired hepatic function may significantly limit the ability to clear lactate, glyburide and metformin hydrochloride should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. Patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, when taking glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, since alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin hydrochloride on lactate metabolism. In addition, glyburide and metformin hydrochloride should be temporarily discontinued prior to any intravascular radiocontrast study and for any surgical procedure (see also PRECAUTIONS).
The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle, and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias with more marked acidosis. The patient and the patient's physician must be aware of the possible importance of such symptoms and the patient should be instructed to notify the physician immediately if they occur (see also PRECAUTIONS). Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and if indicated, blood pH, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy with metformin, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
Levels of fasting venous plasma lactate above the upper limit of normal but less than 5 mmol/L in patients taking glyburide and metformin hydrochloride do not necessarily indicate impending lactic acidosis and may be explainable by other mechanisms, such as poorly controlled diabetes or obesity, vigorous physical activity, or technical problems in sample handling. (See also PRECAUTIONS.)
Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia).
Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting. In a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive measures promptly instituted. Because metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable (with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions), prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove the accumulated metformin. Such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery. (See also CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS.)
The administration of oral hypoglycemic drugs has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality as compared to treatment with diet alone or diet plus insulin. This warning is based on the study conducted by the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP), a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of glucose-lowering drugs in preventing or delaying vascular complications in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The study involved 823 patients who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (Diabetes 19 (Suppl. 2):747-830, 1970).
UGDP reported that patients treated for 5 to 8 years with diet plus a fixed dose of tolbutamide (1.5 g per day) had a rate of cardiovascular mortality approximately 2½ times that of patients treated with diet alone. A significant increase in total mortality was not observed, but the use of tolbutamide was discontinued based on the increase in cardiovascular mortality, thus limiting the opportunity for the study to show an increase in overall mortality. Despite controversy regarding the interpretation of these results, the findings of the UGDP study provide an adequate basis for this warning. The patient should be informed of the potential risks and benefits of glyburide and of alternative modes of therapy.
Although only 1 drug in the sulfonylurea class (tolbutamide) was included in this study, it is prudent from a safety standpoint to consider that this warning may also apply to other hypoglycemic drugs in this class, in view of their close similarities in mode of action and chemical structure.
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FDA Safety Alerts
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FDA Labeling Changes
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Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP contain 2 oral antihyperglycemic drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes, glyburide USP and metformin hydrochloride USP.
Glyburide USP is an oral antihyperglycemic drug of the sulfonylurea class. The chemical name for glyburide is 1-[[p-[2-(5-chloro-o-anisamido)ethyl]phenyl]sulfonyl]-3-cyclo-hexylurea. Glyburide USP is a white to off-white crystalline compound. The structural formula is represented below.
Metformin hydrochloride USP is an oral antihyperglycemic drug used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide monohydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or α-glucosidase inhibitors. It is a white to off-white crystalline compound. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. The structural formula is as shown:
Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP are available for oral administration containing 1.25 mg glyburide USP with 250 mg metformin hydrochloride USP, 2.5 mg glyburide USP with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride USP, and 5 mg glyburide USP with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride USP. In addition, each film-coated tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, povidone, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, propylene glycol, polysorbate 80, talc, titanium dioxide and FD&C Yellow#6 aluminum lake. The 1.25 mg/250 mg and 5 mg/500 mg strengths also contain D&C Yellow#10 aluminum lake; The 2.5 mg/500 mg strength also contains FD&C Red#40 aluminum lake.
Glyburide And Metformin Hydrochloride Manufacturers
Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited
Aphena Pharma Solutions – Tennessee, Inc.
Lake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Products Llc
Lake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Products Llc
Clinical Solutions Wholesale
Actavis Elizabeth Llc
Aurobindo Pharma Limited
Citron Pharma Llc
Teva Pharmaceuticals Usa Inc
Unit Dose Services
Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
American Health Packaging
Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
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