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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Hepatic Injury: Severe hepatocellular injury, confirmed by rechallenge in at least one case, occurs rarely with labetalol therapy. The hepatic injury is usually reversible, but hepatic necrosis and death have been reported. Injury has occurred after both short- and long-term treatment and may be slowly progressive despite minimal symptomatology. Similar hepatic events have been reported with a related research compound, dilevalol HCl, including two deaths. Dilevalol HCl is one of the four isomers of labetalol HCl. Thus, for patients taking labetalol, periodic determination of suitable hepatic laboratory tests would be appropriate. Appropriate laboratory testing should be done at the very first symptom/sign of liver dysfunction (e.g., pruritus, dark urine, persistent anorexia, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, or unexplained "flu-like" symptoms). If the patient has laboratory evidence of liver injury or jaundice, labetalol should be stopped and not restarted.
Cardiac Failure: Sympathetic stimulation is a vital component supporting circulatory function in congestive heart failure. Beta-blockade carries a potential hazard of further depressing myocardial contractility and precipitating more severe failure. Although beta-blockers should be avoided in overt congestive heart failure, if necessary, labetalol HCl can be used with caution in patients with a history of heart failure who are well compensated. Congestive heart failure has been observed in patients receiving labetalol HCl. Labetalol HCl does not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle.
In Patients Without a History of Cardiac Failure: In patients with latent cardiac insufficiency, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a period of time can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure. At the first sign or symptom of impending cardiac failure, patients should be fully digitalized and/or be given a diuretic, and the response should be observed closely. If cardiac failure continues despite adequate digitalization and diuretic, therapy with labetalol hydrochloride tablets should be withdrawn (gradually, if possible).
Exacerbation of Ischemic Heart Disease Following Abrupt Withdrawal: Angina pectoris has not been reported upon labetalol HCl discontinuation. However, hypersensitivity to catecholamines has been observed in patients withdrawn from beta-blocker therapy; exacerbation of angina and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred after abrupt discontinuation of such therapy. When discontinuing chronically administered labetalol hydrochloride tablets, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1 to 2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, therapy with labetalol hydrochloride tablets should be reinstituted promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Patients should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician's advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue therapy with labetalol hydrochloride tablets abruptly in patients being treated for hypertension.
Nonallergic Bronchospasm (e.g., Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema): Patients with bronchospastic disease should, in general, not receive beta-blockers. Labetalol hydrochloride tablets may be used with caution, however, in patients who do not respond to, or cannot tolerate, other antihypertensive agents. It is prudent, if labetalol hydrochloride tablets are used, to use the smallest effective dose, so that inhibition of endogenous or exogenous beta-agonists is minimized.
Pheochromocytoma: Labetalol HCl has been shown to be effective in lowering the blood pressure and relieving symptoms in patients with pheochromocytoma. However, paradoxical hypertensive responses have been reported in a few patients with this tumor; therefore, use caution when administering labetalol HCl to patients with pheochromocytoma.
Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia: Beta-adrenergic blockade may prevent the appearance of premonitory signs and symptoms (e.g., tachycardia) of acute hypoglycemia. This is especially important with labile diabetics. Beta-blockade also reduces the release of insulin in response to hyperglycemia; it may therefore be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic drugs.
Do not routinely withdraw chronic beta blocker therapy prior to surgery. The effect of labetalol's alpha adrenergic activity has not been evaluated in this setting.
A synergism between labetalol HCl and halothane anesthesia has been shown (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
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FDA Safety Alerts
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There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.
Labetalol hydrochloride tablets are indicated in the management of hypertension. Labetalol hydrochloride tablets may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide and loop diuretics.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Labetalol hydrochloride tablets are adrenergic receptor blocking agents that have both selective alpha1-adrenergic and nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking actions in a single substance.
Labetalol hydrochloride (HCl) is a racemate chemically designated as 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]benzamide monohydrochloride, and it has the following structure:
Labetalol HCl has the empirical formula C19H24N2O3∙HCl and a molecular weight of 364.9. It has two asymmetric centers and therefore exists as a molecular complex of two diastereoisomeric pairs. Dilevalol, the R,R´ stereoisomer, makes up 25% of racemic labetalol.
Labetalol HCl is a white or off-white crystalline powder, soluble in water.
Each tablet, for oral administration contains 100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg of labetalol HCl.
In addition, each 100 mg tablet has the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, carnauba wax, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch (corn), synthetic red iron oxide, synthetic yellow iron oxide, and titanium dioxide.
In addition, each 200 mg tablet has the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, carnauba wax, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch (corn), titanium dioxide, and triacetin.
In addition, each 300 mg tablet has the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, carnauba wax, FD&C Blue #2 aluminum lake, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch (corn), and titanium dioxide.