Lansoprazole Amoxicillin Clarithromycin Kit Recall
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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Acute Hypersensitivity Reactions
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy, including amoxicillin. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin capsules, and clarithromycin tablets careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. In the event of severe acute hypersensitivity reactions, such as anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Henoch-Schonlein purpura lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin capsules, and clarithromycin tablets should be discontinued immediately and appropriate treatment should be urgently initiated.
Use in Pregnancy
CLARITHROMYCIN SHOULD NOT BE USED IN PREGNANT WOMEN EXCEPT IN CLINICAL CIRCUMSTANCES WHERE NO ALTERNATIVE THERAPY IS APPROPRIATE. IF PREGNANCY OCCURS WHILE TAKING CLARITHROMYCIN, THE PATIENT SHOULD BE INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARD TO THE FETUS. CLARITHROMYCIN HAS DEMONSTRATED ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PREGNANCY OUTCOME AND/OR EMBRYO- FETAL DEVELOPMENT IN MONKEYS, RATS, MICE, AND RABBITS AT DOSES THAT PRODUCED PLASMA LEVELS TWO TO 17 TIMES THE SERUM LEVELS ACHIEVED IN HUMANS TREATED AT THE MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED HUMAN DOSES (see PRECAUTIONS, Pregnancy).
Hepatic dysfunction, including increased liver enzymes, and hepatocellular and/or cholestatic hepatitis, with or without jaundice, has been reported with clarithromycin. This hepatic dysfunction may be severe and is usually reversible. In some instances, hepatic failure with fatal outcome has been reported and generally has been associated with serious underlying diseases and/or concomitant medications. Discontinue clarithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.
Clarithromycin has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving clarithromycin. Fatalities have been reported. Clarithromycin should be avoided in patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS) and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.
Symptomatic response to therapy with lansoprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has been observed in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) including lansoprazole. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue lansoprazole if AIN develops (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients taking clarithromycin concomitantly with CYP3A4 substrates. These include colchicine toxicity with colchicine; rhabdomyolysis with simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin; and hypotension with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 (e.g., verapamil, amlodipine, diltiazem) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Life-threatening and fatal drug interactions have been reported in patients treated with clarithromycin and colchicine. Clarithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and this interaction may occur while using both drugs at their recommended doses. If coadministration of clarithromycin and colchicine is necessary in patients with normal renal and hepatic function, the dose of colchicine should be reduced. Patients should be monitored for clinical symptoms of colchicine toxicity. Concomitant administration of clarithromycin and colchicine is contraindicated in patients with renal or hepatic impairment (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Oral Hypoglycemic Agents/Insulin
The concomitant use of clarithromycin and oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin can result in significant hypoglycemia. With certain hypoglycemic drugs such as nateglinide, pioglitazone, repaglinide and rosiglitazone, inhibition of CYP3A enzyme by clarithromycin may be involved and could cause hypoglycemia when used concomitantly. Careful monitoring of glucose is recommended.
There is a risk of serious hemorrhage and significant elevations in INR and prothrombin time when clarithromycin is coadministered with warfarin. INR and prothrombin times should be frequently monitored while patients are receiving clarithromycin and oral anticoagulants concurrently.
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (statins)
Concomitant use of clarithromycin with lovastatin or simvastatin is contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS) as these statins are extensively metabolized by CYP3A4, and concomitant treatment with clarithromycin increases their plasma concentration, which increases the risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. Cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients taking clarithromycin concomitantly with these statins. If treatment with clarithromycin cannot be avoided, therapy with lovastatin or simvastatin must be suspended during the course of treatment.
Caution should be exercised when prescribing clarithromycin with statins. In situations where the concomitant use of clarithromycin with atorvastatin or pravastatin cannot be avoided, atorvastatin dose should not exceed 20 mg daily and pravastatin dose should not exceed 40 mg daily. Use of a statin that is not dependent on CYP3A metabolism (e.g., fluvastatin) can be considered. It is recommended to prescribe the lowest registered dose if concomitant use cannot be avoided.
Concomitant Use of Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, Amoxicillin capsules, and Clarithromycin tablets with Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin capsules, and clarithromycin tablets may be considered in some patients (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clarithromycin and/or amoxicillin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
In addition, published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy, may be associated with an increased risk of CDAD, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve.
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FDA Safety Alerts
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There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
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The components in lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin capsules, and clarithromycin tablets are indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or one-year history of a duodenal ulcer) to eradicate H. pylori. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence (see CLINICAL STUDIES and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin capsules, and clarithromycin tablets and other antibacterial drugs, lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin capsules, and clarithromycin tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP, amoxicillin capsules USP, and clarithromycin tablets USP consist of a daily administration card containing two 30 mg lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP, four 500 mg amoxicillin capsules USP, and two 500 mg clarithromycin tablets USP, for oral administration.
The active ingredient in lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP is lansoprazole, a substituted benzimidazole, 2-[[[3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-pyridyl]methyl]sulfinyl] benzimidazole, a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Lansoprazole has the following structure:
C16H14F3N3O2S M.W. 369.36
Lansoprazole is a white to brownish-white odorless crystalline powder which melts with decomposition at approximately 166°C. Lansoprazole is freely soluble in dimethylformamide; soluble in methanol; sparingly soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile; very slightly soluble in ether; and practically insoluble in hexane and water.
Each delayed-release capsule contains enteric-coated granules consisting of 30 mg of lansoprazole (active ingredient) and the following inactive ingredients: black iron oxide, gelatin, hypromellose, magnesium carbonate, methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion, propylene glycol, red iron oxide, shellac, sugar spheres (which contain sucrose and corn starch), talc, titanium dioxide, and triethyl citrate. Imprinting ink may contain potassium hydroxide.
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Chemically it is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate. Amoxicillin has the following structure:
C16H19N3O5S • 3H2O M.W. 419.45
Amoxicillin capsules USP are intended for oral administration. The buff-colored capsules contain amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 500 mg of amoxicillin.
Inactive ingredients: CAPSULES-DRUG PRODUCT: magnesium stearate. CAPSULE SHELL AND PRINT CONSTITUENTS: black iron oxide, D&C Yellow #10, D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red #40, FD&C Red #40 Aluminum Lake, gelatin, propylene glycol, shellac, and titanium dioxide and may also contain methylparaben, potassium hydroxide, propylparaben, silicon dioxide and sodium lauryl sulfate.
Clarithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. Chemically, it is 6-O-methylerythromycin. Clarithromycin has the following structure:
C38H69NO13 M.W. 747.96
Clarithromycin is a white to off-white crystalline powder. It is soluble in acetone, slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile, and practically insoluble in water. Each light-yellow oval-shaped film-coated immediate-release tablet contains 500 mg of clarithromycin and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, FD&C blue # 2 indigo carmine lake, FD&C red # 40 allura red AC lake, FD&C yellow # 5 tartrazine lake, hypromellose, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, stearic acid, titanium dioxide, and vanillin.