Mycophenolate Mofetil

Mycophenolate Mofetil

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Questions & Answers

Side Effects & Adverse Reactions

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Embryofetal Toxicity

Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant female. Use of MMF during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of congenital malformations, especially external ear and other facial abnormalities including cleft lip and palate, and anomalies of the distal limbs, heart, esophagus, and kidney (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy).

Pregnancy Exposure Prevention and Planning

Females of reproductive potential must be made aware of the increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and congenital malformations and must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning. For recommended pregnancy testing and contraception methods (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy Exposure Prevention and Planning).

Lymphoma and Malignancy

Patients receiving immunosuppressive regimens involving combinations of drugs, including mycophenolate mofetil, as part of an immunosuppressive regimen are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). The risk appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than to the use of any specific agent.

As usual for patients with increased risk for skin cancer, exposure to sunlight and UV light should be limited by wearing protective clothing and using a sunscreen with a high protection factor.

Lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma developed in 0.4% to 1% of patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (2 g or 3 g) with other immunosuppressive agents in controlled clinical trials of renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant patients (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

In pediatric patients, no other malignancies besides lymphoproliferative disorder (2/148 patients) have been observed (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Combination with Other Immunosuppressive Agents

Mycophenolate mofetil has been administered in combination with the following agents in clinical trials: antithymocyte globulin (ATGAM®), OKT3 (Orthoclone OKT® 3), cyclosporine (Sandimmune®, Neoral®) and corticosteroids. The efficacy and safety of the use of mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosuppressive agents have not been determined.

Serious Infections

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk of developing bacterial, fungal, protozoal and new or reactivated viral infections, including opportunistic infections. These infections may lead to serious, including fatal outcomes. Because of the danger of oversuppression of the immune system which can increase susceptibility to infection, combination immunosuppressant therapy should be used with caution (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

New or Reactivated Viral Infections

Polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN), JC virus associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, reactivation of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) have been reported in patients treated with immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil. Reduction in immunosuppression should be considered for patients who develop evidence of new or reactivated viral infections. Physicians should also consider the risk that reduced immunosuppression represents to the functioning allograft.

PVAN, especially due to BK virus infection, is associated with serious outcomes, including deteriorating renal function and renal graft loss (see ADVERSE REACTIONS: Postmarketing Experience). Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for PVAN.

PML, which is sometimes fatal, commonly presents with hemiparesis, apathy, confusion, cognitive deficiencies, and ataxia. Risk factors for PML include treatment with immunosuppressant therapies and impairment of immune function (see ADVERSE REACTIONS: Postmarketing Experience). In immunosuppressed patients, physicians should consider PML in the differential diagnosis in patients reporting neurological symptoms and consultation with a neurologist should be considered as clinically indicated.

The risk of CMV viremia and CMV disease is highest among transplant recipients seronegative for CMV at time of transplant who receive a graft from a CMV seropositive donor. Therapeutic approaches to limiting CMV disease exist and should be routinely provided. Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for CMV disease.

Viral reactivation has been reported in patients infected with HBV or HCV. Monitoring infected patients for clinical and laboratory signs of active HBV or HCV infection is recommended.


Severe neutropenia [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 0.5 × 103/µL] developed in up to 2% of renal, up to 2.8% of cardiac, and up to 3.6% of hepatic transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil 3 g daily (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil should be monitored for neutropenia (see PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests). The development of neutropenia may be related to mycophenolate mofetil itself, concomitant medications, viral infections, or some combination of these causes. If neutropenia develops (ANC <1.3 × 103/µL), dosing with mycophenolate mofetil should be interrupted or the dose reduced, appropriate diagnostic tests performed, and the patient managed appropriately (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Neutropenia has been observed most frequently in the period from 31 to 180 days posttransplant in patients treated for prevention of renal, cardiac, and hepatic rejection.

Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil should be instructed to report immediately any evidence of infection, unexpected bruising, bleeding or any other manifestation of bone marrow depression.

Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA)

Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. The mechanism for mycophenolate mofetil induced PRCA is unknown; the relative contribution of other immunosuppressants and their combinations in an immunosuppression regimen are also unknown. In some cases, PRCA was found to be reversible with dose reduction or cessation of mycophenolate mofetil therapy. In transplant patients, however, reduced immunosuppression may place the graft at risk.


Legal Issues

There is currently no legal information available for this drug.

FDA Safety Alerts

There are currently no FDA safety alerts available for this drug.

Manufacturer Warnings

There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.

FDA Labeling Changes

There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.


Renal, Cardiac, and Hepatic Transplant

Mycophenolate mofetil capsule, USP is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal, cardiac or hepatic transplants. Mycophenolate mofetil capsules, USP should be used concomitantly with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

Mycophenolate mofetil intravenous is an alternative dosage form to mycophenolate mofetil capsules, tablets and oral suspension. Mycophenolate mofetil intravenous should be administered within 24 hours following transplantation. Mycophenolate mofetil intravenous can be administered for up to 14 days; patients should be switched to oral mycophenolate mofetil as soon as they can tolerate oral medication.


There is currently no drug history available for this drug.

Other Information

Mycophenolate mofetil is the 2-morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressive agent; inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor.

The chemical name for mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is 2-morpholinoethyl (E)-6-(1,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-isobenzofuranyl)-4-methyl-4-hexenoate. It has a molecular formula of C23H31NO7, a molecular weight of 433.50, and the following structural formula:

structural formula mycophenolate

Mycophenolate mofetil is a white to off-white crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in water (43 mcg/mL at pH 7.4); the solubility increases in acidic medium (4.27 mg/mL at pH 3.6). It is freely soluble in acetone, soluble in methanol, and sparingly soluble in ethanol. The apparent partition coefficient in 1-octanol/water (pH 7.4) buffer solution is 238. The pKa values for mycophenolate mofetil are 5.6 for the morpholino group and 8.5 for the phenolic group.

Mycophenolate mofetil capsules, USP are available for oral administration as capsules containing 250 mg of mycophenolate mofetil. In addition, each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, FD&C blue #2, gelatin, magnesium stearate, povidone (K-90), pregelatinized starch and titanium dioxide. The capsule is printed with edible black ink. The black ink is comprised of butyl alcohol, black iron oxide, dehydrated alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, purified water, shellac and strong ammonia solution.

Mycophenolate Mofetil Manufacturers

  • American Health Packaging
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsule [American Health Packaging]
  • American Health Packaging
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablet [American Health Packaging]
  • Greenstone Llc
    Mycophenolate Mofetil (Mycophenolate Mofetil ) Tablet, Film Coated Mycophenolate Mofetil (Mycophenolate Mofetil) Capsule [Greenstone Llc ]
  • Ascend Laboratories, Llc
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablet, Film Coated Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsule [Ascend Laboratories, Llc]
  • Sandoz Inc
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsule [Sandoz Inc]
  • Sandoz Inc
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablet [Sandoz Inc]
  • Qualitest Pharmaceuticals
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsule [Qualitest Pharmaceuticals]
  • Qualitest Pharmaceuticals
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablet [Qualitest Pharmaceuticals]
  • Strides Arcolab Limited
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablet, Film Coated Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsule [Strides Arcolab Limited]
  • Cardinal Health
    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablet Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsule [Cardinal Health]

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