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Questions & Answers

Side Effects & Adverse Reactions

The potential for development of acute PJP still exists in patients receiving NebuPent prophylaxis. Therefore, any patient with symptoms suggestive of the presence of a pulmonary infection, including but not limited to dyspnea, fever or cough, should receive a thorough medical evaluation and appropriate diagnostic tests for possible acute PJP as well as for other opportunistic and nonopportunistic pathogens. The use of NebuPent may alter the clinical and radiographic features of PJP and could result in an atypical presentation, including but not limited to mild disease or focal ­infection.

Prior to initiating NebuPent prophylaxis, symptomatic patients should be evaluated appropriately to exclude the presence of PJP. The recommended dose of NebuPent for the prevention of PJP is insufficient to treat acute PJP.

Legal Issues

There is currently no legal information available for this drug.

FDA Safety Alerts

There are currently no FDA safety alerts available for this drug.

Manufacturer Warnings

There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.

FDA Labeling Changes

There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.


NebuPent is indicated for the prevention of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) in high-risk, HIV-infected patients defined by one or both of the following criteria:

i. a history of one or more episodes of PJP

ii. a peripheral CD4+ (T4 helper/inducer) lymphocyte count less than or equal to 200/mm3.

These indications are based on the results of an 18-month randomized, dose-response trial in high risk HIV-infected patients and on existing epidemiological data from natural history studies.

The patient population of the controlled trial consisted of 408 patients, 237 of whom had a history of one or more episodes of PJP. The remaining patients without a history of PJP included 55 patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma and 116 patients with other AIDS diagnoses, ARC or asymptomatic HIV infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive NebuPent via the Respirgard® II nebulizer at one of the following three doses: 30 mg every two weeks (n=135), 150 mg every two weeks (n=134) or 300 mg every four weeks (n=139). The results of the trial demonstrated a significant protective effect (p<0.01) against PJP with the 300 mg every four week dosage regimen compared to the 30 mg every two week dosage regimen. The 300 mg dose regimen reduced the risk of developing PJP by 50 to 70% compared to the 30 mg regimen. A total of 293 patients (72% of all patients) also received zidovudine at sometime during the trial. The analysis of the data demonstrated the efficacy of the 300 mg dose even after adjusting for the effect of zidovudine.

The results of the trial further demonstrate that the dose and frequency of dosing are important to the efficacy of NebuPent prophylaxis in that multiple analyses consistently demonstrated a trend toward greater efficacy with 300 mg every four weeks as compared to 150 mg every two weeks.

No dose-response was observed for reduction in overall mortality; however, mortality from PJP was low in all three dosage groups.


There is currently no drug history available for this drug.

Other Information

NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate), an antifungal agent, is a nonpyrogenic lyophilized product. After reconstitution with Sterile Water for Injection, USP, NebuPent is administered by inhalation via the Respirgard® II nebulizer [Marquest, Englewood, CO] (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pentamidine isethionate, 4,4’-[1,5-pentane-diylbis(oxy)]bis-benzenecarboximidamid, is a white crystalline powder soluble in water and glycerin and insoluble in ether, acetone, and chloroform.


C19H24N4O2•2C2H6O4S                            592.68

Each vial contains 300 mg pentamidine isethionate.

Nebupent Manufacturers

  • App Pharmaceuticals, Llc
    Nebupent (Pentamidine Isethionate) Inhalant [App Pharmaceuticals, Llc]

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