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NITHIODOTE is indicated for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with NITHIODOTE should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.
Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to sodium nitroprusside.
The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, NITHIODOTE should be administered without delay.
In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.
The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.
Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of NITHIODOTE, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:
- Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
- Presence of soot around the mouth, nose, or oropharynx
- Altered mental status
Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.
Caution should be exercised when administering other cyanide antidotes simultaneously with NITHIODOTE, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote with NITHIODOTE, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Sodium nitrite, one of the active ingredients in NITHIODOTE has the chemical name nitrous acid sodium salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. Sodium thiosulfate, the second active ingredient in NITHIODOTE has the chemical name thiosulfuric acid, disodium salt, pentahydrate. The chemical formula is Na2S2O3• 5H2O and the molecular weight is 248.17. The structural formulae are:
Structure of Sodium Nitrite
Structure of Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate
NITHIODOTE is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of sodium nitrite injection and one 50 mL glass vial containing a 25% solution of sodium thiosulfate injection.
Sodium nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of sodium nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Sodium nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.
Sodium thiosulfate injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 12.5 grams of sodium thiosulfate in 50 mL solution (250 mg/mL). Each mL also contains 2.8 mg boric acid and 4.4 mg of potassium chloride. The pH of the solution is adjusted with boric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. Sodium thiosulfate injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.5 and 9.5.