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Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture
Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendons have also been reported. The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in those taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have been reported in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported. Ofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug.
THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF OFLOXACIN IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AND ADOLESCENTS (UNDER THE AGE OF 18 YEARS), PREGNANT WOMEN, AND LACTATING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use, Pregnancy, and Nursing Mothers Subsections).
In the immature rat, the oral administration of ofloxacin at 5 to 16 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/kg or 1 to 3 times based on mg/m 2 increased the incidence and severity of osteochondrosis. The lesions did not regress after 13 weeks of drug withdrawal. Other quinolones also produce similar erosions in the weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species (see ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY).
Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis
Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid ofloxacin in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients and ADVERSE REACTIONS, Postmarketing Adverse Events).
Central Nervous System Effects
Convulsions, increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri), and toxic psychosis have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ofloxacin. Quinolones, including ofloxacin, may also cause central nervous system stimulation which may lead to: tremors, restlessness/agitation, nervousness/anxiety, lightheadedness, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia and depression, nightmares, insomnia, and rarely suicidal thoughts or acts. These reactions may occur following the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving ofloxacin, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. Insomnia may be more common with ofloxacin than some other products in the quinolone class. As with all quinolones, ofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with a known or suspected CNS disorder that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction) (see PRECAUTIONS, General, Information for Patients, Drug Interactions and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ofloxacin. These reactions often occur following the first dose. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (including tongue, laryngeal, throat, or facial edema/swelling), airway obstruction (including bronchospasm, shortness of breath, and acute respiratory distress), dyspnea, urticaria, itching, and other serious skin reactions. This drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitative measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, as clinically indicated (see PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
- fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome);
- vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;
- allergic pneumonitis;
- interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;
- hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;
- anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.
The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of ofloxacin and may be irreversible. Ofloxacin should be discontinued immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness or other alterations of sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense or vibratory sensation.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ofloxacin tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Ofloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of syphilis.
Antimicrobial agents used in high doses for short periods of time to treat gonorrhea may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. All patients with gonorrhea should have a serologic test for syphilis at the time of diagnosis. Patients treated with ofloxacin for gonorrhea should have a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after three months and, if positive, treatment with an appropriate antimicrobial should be instituted.
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FDA Safety Alerts
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FDA Labeling Changes
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To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ofloxacin Tablets, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Ofloxacin Tablets, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Ofloxacin Tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of adults with mild to moderate infections (unless otherwise indicated) caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the infections listed below. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations.
Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis due to Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia due to Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Proteus mirabilis.
Acute, Uncomplicated Urethral and Cervical Gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see WARNINGS).
Nongonococcal Urethritis and Cervicitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis (see WARNINGS).
Mixed Infections of the Urethra and Cervix due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see WARNINGS).
Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (including severe infection) due to Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see WARNINGS).
NOTE: If anaerobic microorganisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy for anaerobic pathogens should be administered.
Uncomplicated Cystitis due to Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus,* or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.*
Prostatitis due to Escherichia coli.
* = Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients.
Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing the infection and to determine their susceptibility to ofloxacin, USP. Therapy with ofloxacin, USP may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be continued.
As with other drugs in this class, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ofloxacin, USP. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Ofloxacin Tablets, USP is a synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent for oral administration. Chemically, ofloxacin,USP, a fluorinated carboxyquinolone, is the racemate, (±)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7 H-pyrido[1,2,3- de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid. The chemical structure is:
Its empirical formula is C 18H 20FN 3O 4 and its molecular weight is 361.4. Ofloxacin, USP is an off-white to pale yellow crystalline powder. The molecule exists as a zwitterion at the pH conditions in the small intestine. The relative solubility characteristics of ofloxacin, USP at room temperature, as defined by USP nomenclature, indicate that ofloxacin, USP is considered to be soluble in aqueous solutions with pH between 2 and 5. It is sparingly to slightly soluble in aqueous solutions with pH 7 (solubility falls to 4 mg/mL) and freely soluble in aqueous solutions with pH above 9. Ofloxacin, USP has the potential to form stable coordination compounds with many metal ions. This in vitro chelation potential has the following formation order: Fe +3 > Al +3 > Cu +2 > Ni +2 > Pb +2 > Zn +2 > Mg +2 > Ca +2 > Ba +2.
- Larken Laboratories, Inc.
- Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited
- Rebel Distributors Corp
- Hi-tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.
- Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
- Remedyrepack Inc.
- Pd-rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
- Teva Pharmaceuticals Usa Inc
- Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited
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