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Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED IN THIS AGE GROUP, EXCEPT FOR ANTHRAX, INCLUDING INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX (POST-EXPOSURE), UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Doxycycline, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.
Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.
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FDA Safety Alerts
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FDA Labeling Changes
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To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of doxycycline hyclate and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline hyclate should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of the following infections:
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q. fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
- Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
- Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
- Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydia psittaci.
- Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence.
- Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
- Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
- Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.
- Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.
Doxycycline is also indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms:
- Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
- Plague due to Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis).
- Tuleremia due to Francisella tulerensis (formerly Pasteurella tulerensis).
- Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae (formerly Vibrio comma).
- Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus (formerly Vibrio fetus).
- Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).
- Bartonellosis due to Bartonella baciliformis.
- Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.
Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
- Escherichia coli.
- Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Aerobacter aerogenes).
- Shigella species.
- Acinetobacter species (formerly Mima species and Herellea species).
- Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.
- Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.
Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
- Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumonie (formerly Diplococcus pneumoniae).
- Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.
When penicillin is contraindicated doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:
- Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
- Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum.
- Yaws caused by Treponema pertenue.
- Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes.
- Vincent's infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.
- Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.
- Infections caused by Clostridium species.
- In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.
- In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.
Doxycycline is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum in short-term travelers (<4 months) areas with chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant strains. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section and Information for Patients subsection of the PRECAUTIONS section.
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Doxycycline hyclate is a broad-spectrum antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. The chemical designation is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacene-carboxamide monohydrochloride, compound with ethyl alcohol (2:1), monohydrate. Doxycycline is a light-yellow crystalline powder. Doxycycline Hyclate is soluble in water.
Doxycycline has a high degree of lipoid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form.
The structural formula is as follows:
Each tablet for oral administration contains doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline (anhydrous). Inactive ingredients are: Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Corn Starch, Croscarmellose Sodium, Docusate Sodium, Magnesium Stearate, and Microcrystalline Cellulose. Film Coating and Polishing contains: FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Yellow No. 6, and Titanium Dioxide.