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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product. The excessive intake of acetaminophen may be intentional to cause self-harm or unintentional as patients attempt to obtain more pain relief or unknowingly take other acetaminophen-containing products.
The risk of acute liver failure is higher in individuals with underlying liver disease and in individuals who ingest alcohol while taking acetaminophen.
Instruct patients to look for acetaminophen or APAP on package labels and not to use more than one product that contains acetaminophen. Instruct patients to seek medical attention immediately upon ingestion of more than 4000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day, even if they feel well.
Serious Skin Reactions
Rarely, acetaminophen may cause serious skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. Patients should be informed about the signs of serious skin reactions, and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
Death Related to Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Codeine to Morphine
Respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine in the post-operative period following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy and had evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine (i.e., multiple copies of the gene for cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 or high morphine concentrations). Deaths have also occurred in nursing infants who were exposed to high levels of morphine in breast milk because their mothers were ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine.
Some individuals may be ultra-rapid metabolizers because of a specific CYP2D6 genotype (gene duplications denoted as *1/*1xN or *1/*2xN). The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 0.5 to 1% in Chinese and Japanese, 0.5 to 1% in Hispanics, 1 to 10% in Caucasians, 3% in African Americans, and 16 to 28% in North Africans, Ethiopians, and Arabs. Data are not available for other ethnic groups. These individuals convert codeine into its active metabolite, morphine, more rapidly and completely than other people. This rapid conversion results in higher than expected serum morphine levels. Even at labeled dosage regimens, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may have life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression or experience signs of overdose (such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing).
Children with obstructive sleep apnea who are treated with codeine for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain may be particularly sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine that has been rapidly metabolized to morphine. Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules is contraindicated for post-operative pain management in all pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications].
When prescribing Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, healthcare providers should choose the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time and inform patients and caregivers about these risks and the signs of morphine overdose.
There have been post-marketing reports of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis associated with the use of acetaminophen. Clinical signs included swelling of the face, mouth, and throat, respiratory distress, urticaria, rash, pruritus, and vomiting. There were infrequent reports of life-threatening anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical attention. Instruct patients to discontinue Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules immediately and seek medical care if they experience these symptoms. Do not prescribe Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules for patients with acetaminophen allergy.
In the presence of head injury or other intracranial lesions, the respiratory depressant effects of codeine and other narcotics may be markedly enhanced, as well as their capacity for elevating cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Narcotics also produce other CNS depressant effects, such as drowsiness, that may further obscure the clinical course of the patients with head injuries.
Codeine or other narcotics may obscure signs on which to judge the diagnosis or clinical course of patients with acute abdominal conditions.
Butalbital and codeine are both habit-forming and potentially abusable. Consequently, the extended use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules is not recommended.
There is currently no legal information available for this drug.
FDA Safety Alerts
There are currently no FDA safety alerts available for this drug.
There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules is indicated for the relief of the symptom complex of tension (or muscle contraction) headache.
Evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in the treatment of multiple recurrent headaches is unavailable. Caution in this regard is required because codeine and butalbital are habit-forming and potentially abusable.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules is supplied in capsule form for oral administration.
Each capsule contains the following active ingredients:
|butalbital, USP........................................||50 mg|
|acetaminophen, USP............................||325 mg|
|caffeine, USP........................................||40 mg|
|codeine phosphate, USP.......................||30 mg|
Butalbital (5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid) is a short- to intermediate-acting barbiturate. It has the following structural formula:
C11H16N2O3 molecular weight 224.26
Acetaminophen (4´-hydroxyacetanilide) is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. It has the following structural formula:
C8H9NO2 molecular weight 151.16
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a central nervous system stimulant. It has the following structural formula:
C8H10N4O2 molecular weight 194.19
Codeine phosphate (7,8-Didehydro-4,5α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6α-ol phosphate (1:1) (salt) hemihydrate) is a narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It has the following structural formula:
C18H24NO7P anhydrous molecular weight 397.37
Inactive Ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch. Gelatin capsules contain D&C Red No. 33, FD&C Blue No. 1, gelatin, and titanium dioxide. The capsules are printed with edible inks containing D&C Red No. 7 Calcium Lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake, and titanium dioxide.