Tobramycin In Sodium Chloride Recall
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Questions & Answers
Side Effects & Adverse Reactions
See WARNINGS box above.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Tobramycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
There is currently no legal information available for this drug.
FDA Safety Alerts
There are currently no FDA safety alerts available for this drug.
There is currently no manufacturer warning information available for this drug.
FDA Labeling Changes
There are currently no FDA labeling changes available for this drug.
Tobramycin sulfate is indicated for the treatment of serious bacterial infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the diseases listed below:
Septicemia in the neonate, child, and adult caused by P aeruginosa, E coli, and Klebsiella sp
Lower respiratory tract infections caused by P aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp, Serratia sp, E coli, and S aureus (penicillinase and non-penicillinase-producing strains)
Serious central-nervous-system infections (meningitis) caused by susceptible organisms
Intra-abdominal infections, including peritonitis, caused by E coli, Klebsiella sp, and Enterobacter sp
Skin, bone, and skin-structure infections caused by P aeruginosa, Proteus sp, E coli, Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp, and S aureus
Complicated and recurrent urinary tract infections caused by P aeruginosa, Proteus sp (indole-positive and indole-negative), E coli, Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp, Serratia sp, S aureus, Providencia sp, and Citrobacter sp
Aminoglycosides, including tobramycin sulfate, are not indicated in uncomplicated initial episodes of urinary tract infections unless the causative organisms are not susceptible to antibiotics having less potential toxicity. Tobramycin sulfate may be considered in serious staphylococcal infections when penicillin or other potentially less toxic drugs are contraindicated and when bacterial susceptibility testing and clinical judgment indicate its use.
Bacterial cultures should be obtained prior to and during treatment to isolate and identify etiologic organisms and to test their susceptibility to tobramycin. If susceptibility tests show that the causative organisms are resistant to tobramycin, other appropriate therapy should be instituted. In patients in whom a serious life-threatening gram-negative infection is suspected, including those in whom concurrent therapy with a penicillin or cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside may be indicated, treatment with tobramycin sulfate may be initiated before the results of susceptibility studies are obtained. The decision to continue therapy with tobramycin should be based on the results of susceptibility studies, the severity of the infection, and the important additional concepts discussed in the WARNINGS box above.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of tobramycin and other antibacterial drugs, tobramycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antimicrobial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
There is currently no drug history available for this drug.
Tobramycin sulfate, a water-soluble antibiotic of the aminoglycoside group, is derived from the actinomycete Streptomyces tenebrarius. Tobramycin in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection is a clear and colorless sterile aqueous solution for parenteral administration.
Each milliliter (mL) of the 50 mL size contains tobramycin sulfate equivalent to 1.2 mg tobramycin base with sodium chloride 9 mg in water for injection.
Each milliliter (mL) of the 100 mL size contains tobramycin sulfate equivalent to 0.8 mg tobramycin base with sodium chloride 9 mg in water for injection.
For the 50 and 100 mL sizes, the osmolar concentration is listed in the HOW SUPPLIED section; pH is 5.0 (3.0 to 6.5). Contains sulfuric acid and may contain sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment.
The solutions contain no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent (except tobramycin) or buffer and are intended only for use as a single-dose infusion. When smaller doses are required the unused portion should be discarded.
Tobramycin sulfate is O-3-amino-3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-[2,6-diamino-2,3,6-trideoxy-α-D-ribo-hexopyranosyl-(1→6)]-2-deoxy-L-streptamine sulfate (2:5)(salt) and has the chemical formula (C18H37N5O9)2 • 5H2SO4. The molecular weight is 1,425.39. The structural formula for tobramycin is as follows:
The flexible plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinyl chloride. Water can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap but not in amounts sufficient to affect the solution significantly.
Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials.
Exposure to temperatures above 25°C/77°F during transport and storage will lead to minor losses in moisture content. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.